Here we describe bacterial genotyping by direct linear analysis (DLA) single-molecule mapping. DLA involves preparation of restriction digest of genomic DNA labeled with a sequence-specific fluorescent probe and stained nonspecifically with intercalator. These restriction fragments are stretched one by one in a microfluidic device, and the distribution of probes on the fragments is determined by single-molecule measurement of probe fluorescence. Fluorescence of the DNA-bound intercalator provides information on the molecule length. Because the probes recognize short sequences, they encounter multiple cognate sites on 100- to 300-kb-long DNA fragments. The DLA maps are based on underlying DNA sequences of microorganisms; therefore, the maps are unique for each fragment. This allows fragments of similar lengths that cannot be resolved by standard DNA sizing techniques to be readily distinguished. DNA preparation, data collection, and analysis can be carried out in as little as 5h when working with monocultures. We demonstrate the ability to discriminate between two pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, O157:H7 Sakai and uropathogenic 536, and we use DLA mapping to identify microorganisms in mixtures. We also introduce a second color probe to double the information used to distinguish molecules and increase the length range of mapped fragments.
Analytical Biochemistry 03/2010; 402(1):83-90. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.024 · 2.31 Impact Factor