[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) is critical for host control of M. tuberculosis, but the relative contribution of TNF from innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection is unclear. Myeloid versus T-cell-derived TNF function in tuberculosis was investigated using cell type-specific TNF deletion. Mice deficient for TNF expression in macrophages/neutrophils displayed early, transient susceptibility to M. tuberculosis but recruited activated, TNF-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells and controlled chronic infection. Strikingly, deficient TNF expression in T-cells resulted in early control but susceptibility and eventual mortality during chronic infection with increased pulmonary pathology. TNF inactivation in both myeloid and T-cells rendered mice critically susceptible to infection with a phenotype resembling complete TNF deficient mice, indicating that myeloid and T-cells are the primary TNF sources collaborating for host control of tuberculosis. Thus, while TNF from myeloid cells mediates early immune function, T-cell derived TNF is essential to sustain protection during chronic tuberculosis infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a minimally invasive technique routinely applied for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. It induces cell death by thermal coagulative necrosis of tumor tissues, whereas cellular metabolism can still take place in a transition zone surrounding the necrotic area. An increase in heat shock protein expression occurs shortly after treatment, suggesting that the induction of activating signals may stimulate the host immune system. In addition, various effects on immune effectors have also been observed, including stimulation of tumor-directed T lymphocytes. Here, we prospectively assessed the activation of tumor antigen-specific antibodies, as well as antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in patients suffering from primary or secondary malignancies and treated by RF ablation with or without concomitant chemotherapy. An increase of antibodies (in 4 patients of 49), CD4(+) T cells or CD8(+) T cells (in 2 patients of 49) could be detected several weeks to months following intervention. These findings suggest that in addition to the local control of tumor growth, RF ablation can provide the appropriate conditions for activating tumor-antigen specific immune responses.
International Journal of Cancer 06/2011; 128(11):2653-62. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TNF is essential to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and cannot be replaced by other proinflammatory cytokines. Overproduction of TNF may cause immunopathology, while defective TNF production results in uncontrolled infection. The critical role of TNF in the control of tuberculosis has been illustrated recently by primary and reactivation of latent infection in some patients under pharmacological anti-TNF therapy for rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease. In this review, we discuss results of recent studies aimed at better understanding of molecular, cellular and kinetic aspects of TNF-mediated regulation of host-mycobacteria interactions. In particular, recent data using either mutant mice expressing solely membrane TNF or specific inhibitor sparing membrane TNF demonstrated that membrane TNF is sufficient to control acute M. tuberculosis infection. This is opening the way to selective TNF neutralization that might retain the desired anti-inflammatory effect but reduce the infectious risk.
Current directions in autoimmunity 01/2010; 11:157-79.