M. N. Premachandran

Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Koyambattūr, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (7)4.92 Total impact

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    Sugar Tech 03/2014; · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins against neonate larvae of sugarcane shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in vitro on diet surface. With the lowest LC(50) value, Cry1Ab emerged as the most effective among the three toxins. Sugarcane cultivars Co 86032 and CoJ 64 were transformed with cry1Ab gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter through particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. Gene pyramiding was also attempted by retransforming sugarcane plants carrying bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) gene, with cry1Ab. Southern analysis confirmed multiple integration of the transgene in case of particle bombardment and single site integration in Agrobacterium-mediated transformants. The expression of cry1Ab was demonstrated through Western analysis and the toxin was quantified using ELISA. The amount of Cry1Ab protein in different events varied from 0.007 to 1.73% of the total soluble leaf protein; the events transformed by Agrobacterium method showed significantly higher values. In in vivo bioassay with neonate larvae of shoot borer, transgenics produced considerably lower percentage of deadhearts despite suffering feeding damage by the borer compared with the untransformed control plants. Expressed Cry1Ab content was negatively related to deadheart damage. Aprotinin-expressing sugarcane pyramided with cry1Ab also showed reduction in damage. The potential of producing sugarcane transgenics with cry1Ab and aprotinin genes resistant to early shoot borer was discussed in the light of the results obtained.
    Plant Cell Reports 02/2010; 29(4):383-95. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sugarcane being clonally propagated, its transgenics with the desired trait in a commercial variety need not undergo sexual cycle as that in seed propagated crops in varietal selection or maintenance breeding and in cultivation. Even then, the successful transmission of transgene to the progeny is important in breeding programmes involving transgenics for further improvement by hybridization and clonal selection. Sixty two plants in the progeny of the cross between a transgenic line CoJ 64-3 carrying the cry1Ab gene and an untransformed commercial variety Co 775 were tested by PCR analysis and 31 plants were found to have the transgene. The quantification of Cry protein in leaf samples was done by ELISA. The Cry protein in the total soluble leaf protein in the progeny varied from 0.15 % to 1.19 %, where as in parent it was 0.13 %. In the selfed progeny of three transgenics events of Co 86032 with aprotinin gene the transgene transmission was found to be 32 %, 34 % and 50 %, less than the frequency expected by Mendelian segregation.
    Sugar Tech 01/2009; 11(3). · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended further to internodal region emitting a distinctive sour odour. In some cases brownish discolouration throughout the infected canes was noticed. In severe cases, rotting of entire stalks and desiccation were observed. Blackish discolouration of the dried canes revealed numerous coiled thread like spore masses extruding from black pustules that break through the rind of the entire cane stalk. A survey for the intensity of the disease revealed that collections ofSaccharum spp. as well as hybrid clones were affected to the tune of trace to cent per cent infection. The pathogen cultured from the infected canes was identified asPhaeocytostroma sacchari (Ellis and Everh.) Sutton. Association of other fungi such asFusarium moniliformae,Varonaea botryosa andColletotrichum gloeosporioides was also found in certain infected samples. This is the first report of stalk rot disease caused byP. sacchari in India.
    Sugar Tech 01/2003; 5(1):61-64. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended further to internodal region emitting a distinctive sour odour. In some cases brownish discolouration throughout the infected canes was noticed. In severe cases, rotting of entire stalks and desiccation were observed. Blackish discolouration of the dried canes revealed numerous coiled thread like spore masses extruding from black pustules that break through the rind of the entire cane stalk. A survey for the intensity of the disease revealed that collections of Saccharum spp. as well as hybrid clones were affected to the tune of trace to cent per cent infection. The pathogen cultured from the infected canes was identified as Phaeocytostroma sacchari (Ellis and Everh.) Sutton. Association of other fungi such asFusarium moniliformae, Varonaea botryosa and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was also found in certain infected samples. This is the first report of stalk rot disease caused by P. sacchari in India.
    Sugar Tech 01/2003; 5(1&2):61-64. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • R.Viswanathan, M.N.Premachandran
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    ABSTRACT: The Sugarcane Breeding Institute at Coimbatore maintains the world collection of sugarcane germplasm at its research centre at Cannanore in Kerala, India. The germplasm has been maintained in the field by clonal replanting every year, in a relatively pest- and disease- free condition, for more than 3 decades. However, the presence of a new virus, sugarcane bacilliform badna virus (SCBV), which has been reported from most other sugarcane growing countries, was recently detected in some clones in Kerala. The foliar symptoms presumed to be those of SCBV varied in different clones, but the most pronounced were freckles, chlorotic stripes of varying length, narrowing of leaves and stunted growth. These symptoms were seen on many clones of Saccharum officinarum, S. barberi, S. sinense, S. robustum, and a few hybrids such as CP 44-101. Among the different species, the noble canes, S. officinarum, are most prone to this virus and clones of the species collected before 1970 were heavily infected compared with more recent additions. Almost all the clones of S. barberi and S. sinense were infected. Among the wild species of sugarcane (S. spontaneum and S. robustum) only a limited number of clones had suspected infection. Most of the hybrid clones housed here have not exhibited symptoms of the virus except the clones D 1135, D 1135 str., D 109 and CP 44-101, of which the first 3 are intraspecific hybrids of S. officinarum. Techniques such as ELISA and immune electron microscopy (IEM) were standardised for the detection of the virus in suspected clones. Occurrence of the virus in sugarcane germplasm in India and other countries is a serious hindrance to exchange of sugarcane germplasm. The precision of virus indexing in the suspected clones is to be enhanced by detecting the virus through DNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. It is concluded that the development of strategies to eliminate the virus from infected clones needs immediate attention.
    Sugar Cane. 01/1998;
  • J. Srikanth, N. Subramonian, M. N. Premachandran
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    ABSTRACT: The first phase of transgenic research in sugarcane concentrated on the development and evaluation of transgenic lines transformed for resistance to biotic stresses, particularly diseases and insect pests. Sugarcane is attacked by a range of insects including tissue borers, sucking pests and canegrubs. Losses due to these pests are estimated to be around 10%. Although chemical control and integrated pest management are regularly practiced for the control of insect pests, success is often limited due to practical difficulties. The genetic complexity of sugarcane coupled with the non-availability of resistance genes in the germplasm has made conventional breeding for insect resistance difficult. In this context, transgenic technology has become a handy tool for imparting insect resistance to an elite variety which is otherwise superior for most other agronomic traits. A number of transgenic sugarcane lines have been developed with genes expressing Cry proteins, proteinase inhibitors or lectins resistant to borers, sucking insects or grubs. While commercializing transgenic lines, issues such as higher and stable transgene expression, preparedness for resistance management and non-target effects need to be addressed. To manage the constant threat of resistance development in target insects, it is imperative to deploy field-level strategies taking clues from other crops coupled with the search for new potent replacement molecules for transformation. KeywordsSugarcane–Insect pests–Transgenics– Bt toxins–Proteinase inhibitors–GNA–Insect resistance–Non-target effects
    Tropical Plant Biology 4(1):52-61.