[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, there does not exist reliable MV treatment or protocols in critical care to treat acute respiratory diseases, and thus no proven way to optimise care to minimise the mortality, length of stay or cost. The overall approach of this research is to improve protocols by using appropriate computer models that take into account the essential lung mechanics. The aim of this research is to create an automated algorithm for tracking the boundary of individual or groups of alveoli, and to convert this into a pressure volume curve for three different types of alveoli. A technique called in vivo microscopy has been developed by Schiller et al which visualizes the inflation and deflation of individual alveoli in a surfactant deactivation model of lung injury in pigs. Three different types of alveoli were tracked using data from Schiller et al, type I, II and III. These types correspond to healthy alveoli, non-collapsing but partially diseased alveoli, and fully collapsing diseased alveoli respectively. The boundaries of all the alveoli that were tracked, compared well visually to the movies. Pressure versus Area curves were derived for both inflation and deflation, they captured the expected physiological behaviour, and were qualitatively similar to the quasi-static pressure area curves derived in Schiller et al, Quantitative differences are due to the dynamic effects of ventilation which were not investigated in Schiller et al.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive care unit mortality is strongly associated with organ failure rate and severity. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is used to evaluate the impact of a successful tight glycemic control (TGC) intervention (SPRINT) on organ failure, morbidity, and thus mortality.
A retrospective analysis of 371 patients (3,356 days) on SPRINT (August 2005 - April 2007) and 413 retrospective patients (3,211 days) from two years prior, matched by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III. SOFA is calculated daily for each patient. The effect of the SPRINT TGC intervention is assessed by comparing the percentage of patients with SOFA ≤5 each day and its trends over time and cohort/group. Organ-failure free days (all SOFA components ≤2) and number of organ failures (SOFA components >2) are also compared. Cumulative time in 4.0 to 7.0 mmol/L band (cTIB) was evaluated daily to link tightness and consistency of TGC (cTIB ≥0.5) to SOFA ≤5 using conditional and joint probabilities.
Admission and maximum SOFA scores were similar (P = 0.20; P = 0.76), with similar time to maximum (median: one day; IQR: 13 days; P = 0.99). Median length of stay was similar (4.1 days SPRINT and 3.8 days Pre-SPRINT; P = 0.94). The percentage of patients with SOFA ≤5 is different over the first 14 days (P = 0.016), rising to approximately 75% for Pre-SPRINT and approximately 85% for SPRINT, with clear separation after two days. Organ-failure-free days were different (SPRINT = 41.6%; Pre-SPRINT = 36.5%; P < 0.0001) as were the percent of total possible organ failures (SPRINT = 16.0%; Pre-SPRINT = 19.0%; P < 0.0001). By Day 3 over 90% of SPRINT patients had cTIB ≥0.5 (37% Pre-SPRINT) reaching 100% by Day 7 (50% Pre-SPRINT). Conditional and joint probabilities indicate tighter, more consistent TGC under SPRINT (cTIB ≥0.5) increased the likelihood SOFA ≤5.
SPRINT TGC resolved organ failure faster, and for more patients, from similar admission and maximum SOFA scores, than conventional control. These reductions mirror the reduced mortality with SPRINT. The cTIB ≥0.5 metric provides a first benchmark linking TGC quality to organ failure. These results support other physiological and clinical results indicating the role tight, consistent TGC can play in reducing organ failure, morbidity and mortality, and should be validated on data from randomised trials.
Critical care (London, England) 01/2010; 14(4):R154. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia and diabetes result in vascular complications, most notably diabetic retinopathy (DR). The prevalence of DR is growing and is a leading cause of blindness and/or visual impairment in developed countries. Current methods of detecting, screening, and monitoring DR are based on subjective human evaluation, which is also slow and time-consuming. As a result, initiation and progress monitoring of DR is clinically hard.
Computer vision methods are developed to isolate and detect two of the most common DR dysfunctions-dot hemorrhages (DH) and exudates. The algorithms use specific color channels and segmentation methods to separate these DR manifestations from physiological features in digital fundus images. The algorithms are tested on the first 100 images from a published database. The diagnostic outcome and the resulting positive and negative prediction values (PPV and NPV) are reported. The first 50 images are marked with specialist determined ground truth for each individual exudate and/or DH, which are also compared to algorithm identification.
Exudate identification had 96.7% sensitivity and 94.9% specificity for diagnosis (PPV = 97%, NPV = 95%). Dot hemorrhage identification had 98.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity (PPV = 100%, NPV = 96%). Greater than 95% of ground truth identified exudates, and DHs were found by the algorithm in the marked first 50 images, with less than 0.5% false positives.
A direct computer vision approach enabled high-quality identification of exudates and DHs in an independent data set of fundus images. The methods are readily generalizable to other clinical manifestations of DR. The results justify a blinded clinical trial of the system to prove its capability to detect, diagnose, and, over the long term, monitor the state of DR in individuals with diabetes.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2009; 3(4):819-34.