[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
PPARγ is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. It has been considered as a mediator regulating metabolism, anti-inflammation, and pro-proliferation in the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs). Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), synthetic ligands of PPARγ, have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on VSMCs, which prevent the formation and progression of atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This present study therefore aimed to investigate the signaling pathway by which pioglitazone, one of TZDs, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of VSMCs.
The effects of pioglitazone on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis were studied. Cell proliferation was determined using BrdU incorporation assay. Cell apoptosis was monitored with Hoechst and Annexin V staining. The expression of caspases and cyclins was determined using real-time PCR and Western blot.
Pioglitazone treatment and PPARγ overexpression inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of VSMCs, whereas blocking by antagonist or silencing by siRNA of PPARγ significantly attenuated pioglitazone’s effect. Furthermore, pioglitazone treatment or PPARγ overexpression increased caspase 3 and caspase 9 expression, and decreased the expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 in VSMCs.
Pioglitazone inhibits VSMCs proliferation and promotes apoptosis of VSMCs through a PPARγ signaling pathway. Up-regulation of caspase 3 and down-regulation of cyclins mediates pioglitazone’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Our results imply that pioglitazone prevents the VSMCs proliferation via modulation of caspase and cyclin signaling pathways in a PPARγ-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which regulates gene expression of the key proteins involved in lipid metabolism, vascular inflammation, and proliferation. PPARgamma may contribute to attenuating atherogenesis and postangioplasty restenosis. PPARgamma C161-->T substitution is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether or not the gene substitution alters the risk of CAD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients remains unclear.
A total of 556 unrelated subjects from a Chinese Han population, including 89 healthy subjects, 78 CAD patients, 86 T2DM patients, and 303 CAD combined with T2DM patients, were recruited to enroll in this study. PPARgammaC161-->T gene polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Plasma levels of lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, glucose, and insulin were measured by ELISA or radioimmunoassay (RIA). The coronary artery lesions were evaluated by coronary angiography.
The frequency of the 161T allele in CAD, T2DM, and CAD combined with T2DM patients was similar to that observed in the healthy control group. However, in CAD combined with T2DM patients, the group with angiographically documented moderate stenoses had a higher frequency of the 161T allele in comparison to the group with severe stenoses (P < 0.05). Moreover, in CAD with T2DM patients, the triglyceride levels and apoB in CC homozygote carriers were significantly higher than those in "T" allele carriers.
PPARgammaC161-->T genotypes weren't significantly associated with the risk of CAD, but were markedly correlated with severity of disease vessels in patients with CAD and T2DM. Furthermore, PPARgammaC161-->T substitution was associated with an altered adipose, but not glucose metabolism. These results indicate that the PPARgamma C161-->T polymorphism may reduce the risk of severe atherogenesis by modulation of adipose metabolism, especially triglycerides and apoB, in Chinese patients with CAD and T2DM.