[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes a systemic infection known as typhoid fever. This disease relies on the ability of the bacterium to survive within macrophages. In order to identify genes involved during interaction with macrophages, a pool of approximately 10(5) transposon mutants of S. Typhi was subjected to three serial passages of 24 hours through human macrophages. Mutants recovered from infected macrophages (output) were compared to the initial pool (input) and those significantly underrepresented resulted in the identification of 130 genes encoding for cell membrane components, fimbriae, flagella, regulatory processes, pathogenesis, and many genes of unknown function. Defined deletions in 28 genes or gene clusters were created and mutants were evaluated in competitive and individual infection assays for uptake and intracellular survival during interaction with human macrophages. Overall, 26 mutants had defects in the competitive assay and 14 mutants had defects in the individual assay. Twelve mutants had defects in both assays, including acrA, exbDB, flhCD, fliC, gppA, mlc, pgtE, typA, waaQGP, SPI-4, STY1867-68, and STY2346. The complementation of several mutants by expression of plasmid-borne wild-type genes or gene clusters reversed defects, confirming that the phenotypic impairments within macrophages were gene-specific. In this study, 35 novel phenotypes of either uptake or intracellular survival in macrophages were associated with Salmonella genes. Moreover, these results reveal several genes encoding molecular mechanisms not previously known to be involved in systemic infection by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella that will need to be elucidated.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36643. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For successful infection, Salmonella enterica secretes and injects effector proteins into host cells by two distinct type three secretion systems (T3SSs) located on Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs)-1 and -2. The SPI-2 T3SS is involved in intracellular survival of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and systemic disease. As little is known regarding the function of the SPI-2 T3SS from S. enterica serovar Typhi, the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, we investigated its role for survival in human macrophages. Mutations in the translocon (sseB), basal secretion apparatus (ssaR) and regulator (ssrB) did not result in any reduction in survival under many of the conditions tested. Similar results were obtained with another S. Typhi strain or by using human primary cells. Results were corroborated based on complete deletion of the SPI-2 T3SS. Surprisingly, the data suggest that the SPI-2 T3SS of S. Typhi is not required for survival in human macrophages.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica represents a major human and animal pathogen. Many S. enterica genomes have been completed and many more genome sequencing projects are underway, constituting an excellent resource for comparative genome analysis studies leading to a better understanding of bacterial evolution and pathogenesis. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Typhi are the best-characterized serovars, with the first being involved in localized gastroenteritis in many hosts and the latter causing a systemic human-specific disease. Here, we summarize the major genetic differences between the two different serovars. We detail the divergent repertoires of the virulence factors responsible for the pathogenesis of the organisms and that ultimately result in the distinct clinical outcomes of infection. This comparative genomic overview highlights hypotheses for future investigations on S. enterica pathogenesis and the basis of host specificity.