Erik Mille

Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (8)27.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represent a promising treatment approach for tissue repair and regeneration. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and the fate of the transplanted cells. The objective of the presented work was to determine the feasibility of PET imaging and in vivo monitoring after transplantation of dopamine type 2 receptor-expressing cells.
    Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The assessment of left ventricular function, wall motion and myocardial viability using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated [(18)F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is widely accepted in human and in preclinical small animal studies. The nonterminal and noninvasive approach permits repeated in vivo evaluations of the same animal, facilitating the assessment of temporal changes in disease or therapy response. Although well established, gated small animal PET studies can contain erroneous gating information, which may yield to blurred images and false estimation of functional parameters. In this work, we present quantitative and visual quality control (QC) methods to evaluate the accuracy of trigger events in PET list-mode and physiological data. Left ventricular functional analysis is performed to quantify the effect of gating errors on the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and on the ejection fraction (EF). We aim to recover the cardiac functional parameters by the application of the commonly established heart rate filter approach using fixed ranges based on a standardized population. In addition, we propose a fully reprocessing approach which retrospectively replaces the gating information of the PET list-mode file with appropriate list-mode decoding and encoding software. The signal of a simultaneously acquired ECG is processed using standard MATLAB vector functions, which can be individually adapted to reliably detect the R-peaks. Finally, the new trigger events are inserted into the PET list-mode file. A population of 30 mice with various health statuses was analyzed and standard cardiac parameters such as mean heart rate (119 ms ± 11.8 ms) and mean heart rate variability (1.7 ms ± 3.4 ms) derived. These standard parameter ranges were taken into account in the QC methods to select a group of nine optimal gated and a group of eight sub-optimal gated [(18)F]-FDG PET scans of mice from our archive. From the list-mode files of the optimal gated group, we randomly deleted various fractions (5% to 60%) of contained trigger events to generate a corrupted group. The filter approach was capable to correct the corrupted group and yield functional parameters with no significant difference to the optimal gated group. We successfully demonstrated the potential of the fully reprocessing approach by applying it to the sub-optimal group, where the functional parameters were significantly improved after reprocessing (mean EF from 41% ± 16% to 60% ± 13%). When applied to the optimal gated group the fully reprocessing approach did not alter the functional parameters significantly (mean EF from 64% ± 8% to 64 ± 7%). This work presents methods to determine and quantify erroneous gating in small animal gated [(18)F]-FDG PET scans. We demonstrate the importance of a quality check for cardiac triggering contained in PET list-mode data and the benefit of optionally reprocessing the fully recorded physiological information to retrospectively modify or fully replace the cardiac triggering in PET list-mode data. We aim to provide a preliminary guideline of how to proceed in the presence of errors and demonstrate that offline reprocessing by filtering erroneous trigger events and retrospective gating by ECG processing is feasible. Future work will focus on the extension by additional QC methods, which may exploit the amplitude of trigger events and ECG signal by means of pattern recognition. Furthermore, we aim to transfer the proposed QC methods and the fully reprocessing approach to human myocardial PET/CT.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2013; 58(22):7937-7959. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously investigated the progression of β-amyloid deposition in brain of mice over-expressing amyloid-precursor protein(APP-Swe), a model of Alzheimer's disease(AD), in a longitudinal PET study with the novel β-amyloid tracer [(18)F]-florbetaben. There were certain discrepancies between PET and autoradiographic findings, which seemed to arise from partial volume effects(PVE). Since this phenomenon can lead to bias, most especially in the quantitation of brain microPET studies of mice, we aimed in the present study to investigate the magnitude of PVE on [(18)F]-florbetaben quantitation in murine brain, and to establish and validate a useful correction method(PVEC). Phantom studies with solutions of known radioactivity concentration were performed to measure the full-width-at-half-maximum(FWHM) resolution of the Siemens Inveon DPET and to validate a volume-of-interest(VOI)-based PVEC algorithm. Several VOI-brain-masks were applied to perform in vivo PVEC on [(18)F]-florbetaben data from C57BL/6(N=6) mice, while uncorrected and PVE-corrected data were cross-validated with gamma counting and autoradiography. Next, PVEC was performed on longitudinal PET data set consisting of 43 PET scans in APP-Swe(13 - 20 mo) and age-matched wild-type(WT) mice using the previously defined masks. VOI-based cortex-to-cerebellum ratios(SUVR) were compared for uncorrected and PVE-corrected results. Brains from a subset of transgenic mice were ultimately examined by autoradiography ex vivo and histochemistry in vitro as gold standard assessments, and compared to VOI-based PET results. The phantom study indicated a FWHM of 1.72mm. Applying a VOI-brain-mask including extracerebral regions gave robust PVEC, with increased precision of the SUVR results. Cortical SUVR increased with age in APP-Swe mice compared to baseline measurements(16 mo: +5.5%, p<0.005; 20 mo: +15.5%, p<0.05) with uncorrected data, and to a substantially greater extent with PVEC(16 mo: +12.2% p<0.005; 20 mo: +36.4% p<0.05). WT animals showed no binding changes, irrespective of PVEC. Relative to autoradiographic results, the error [%] for uncorrected cortical SUVR was 18.9% for native PET data, and declined to 4.8% upon PVEC, in high correlation with histochemistry results. We calculate that PVEC increases by 10% statistical power for detecting altered [(18)F]-florbetaben uptake in aging APP-Swe mice in planned studies of disease modifying treatments on amyloidogenesis.
    NeuroImage 09/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The progression of β-amyloid deposition in the brains of mice overexpressing Swedish mutant β-amyloid precursor protein (APP-Swe), a model of Alzheimer disease (AD), was investigated in a longitudinal PET study using the novel β-amyloid tracer (18)F-florbetaben. METHODS: Groups of APP-Swe and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice (age range, 10-20 mo) were investigated. Dynamic emission recordings were acquired with a small-animal PET scanner during 90 min after the administration of (18)F-florbetaben (9 MBq, intravenously). After spatial normalization of individual PET recordings to common coordinates for mouse brain, binding potentials (BPND) and standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated relative to the cerebellum. Voxelwise analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Histochemical analyses and ex vivo autoradiography were ultimately performed in a subset of animals as a gold standard assessment of β-amyloid plaque load. RESULTS: SUVRs calculated from static recordings during the interval of 30-60 min after tracer injection correlated highly with estimates of BPND based on the entire dynamic emission recordings. (18)F-florbetaben binding did not significantly differ in APP-Swe mice and WT animals at 10 and 13 mo of age. At 16 mo of age, the APP-Swe mice had a significant 7.9% increase (P < 0.01) in cortical (18)F-florbetaben uptake above baseline and at 20 mo there was a 16.6% increase (P < 0.001), whereas WT mice did not show any temporal changes in tracer uptake during the interval of follow-up. Voxelwise SPM analyses revealed the first signs of increased cortical binding at 13 mo and confirmed progressive binding increases in both the frontal and the temporal cortices (P < 0.001 uncorrected) to 20 mo. The SUVR strongly correlated with percentage plaque load (R = 0.95, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the first longitudinal PET study in an AD mouse model using the novel β-amyloid tracer (18)F-florbetaben, the temporal and spatial progression of amyloidogenesis in the brain of APP-Swe mice were sensitively monitored. This method should afford the means for preclinical testing of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of AD.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2013; · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The condition of steady-state receptor binding in positron emission tomography (PET) studies is best obtained through the use of a bolus plus steady-infusion paradigm. This is a particularly important consideration in the context of in vivo competition studies, where a pharmacological challenge can be administered during the interval of steady-state ligand binding, as in the case of [¹¹C]-raclopride studies with amphetamine challenge. However, the short half-life of ¹¹C imposes limits on the practical duration of constant infusions. Therefore, we chose to test [¹⁸F]-DMFP as a tracer for dopamine D₂/₃ receptors in rat striatum in the paradigm. Using a conventional bolus injection, the [¹⁸F]-DMFP BP(ND) was 3.8 in striatum of anesthetized rats. When followed by a constant infusion, we obtained quasi-stable BP(ND) estimates of 4.5 within an interval of 45 min. During infusions lasting up to 4 h, BP(ND) declined progressively. This seemed due to the progressive spill-in of radioactivity from the cranium to the cerebellum reference region, despite optimized iterative reconstruction of the images. Therefore, we propose a new concept of compensation for this spill-in effect using pharmacokinetic considerations, without requiring high-resolution anatomical images. Challenge with amphetamine (1 and 4 mg/kg) evoked an ∼25% reduction in BP(ND) . There was no clear evidence of dose-dependence in the striatal-binding changes, despite the considerably greater physiological effect, as documented by ECG. Thus, the general applicability of the bolus plus infusion method with [¹⁸F]-DMFP for small animal studies is impeded by the substantial labeling of the cranium. The cranial uptake was linear, indicating first-order kinetics for the enzymatic defluorination of the tracer. Based on this phenomenon, we developed an analytic method compensating for the effects of progressive cranial labeling on the estimation of specific binding in striatum.
    Synapse 03/2012; 66(8):705-13. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data collection in preclinical small-animal PET studies has been hindered by the small number of recordings typically obtained for a single radiosynthesis. Therefore, we tested procedures for obtaining 8 simultaneous small-animal PET recordings from the brains of 8 mice using an acrylic anesthesia distributor (the Octamouse), with the dopamine D(2/3) ligand (18)F-fallypride serving as a test substance for brain receptor imaging. The effect of scatter correction on the small-animal PET recordings was first evaluated in phantom studies in which sources of different radioactivity concentration were placed within the chambers of the Octamouse. Next, potential effects of mass on the (18)F-fallypride binding potential (BP(ND)) in the striatum were tested in groups of mice receiving (18)F-fallypride at 2 different specific activities (140 and 50 GBq/μmol), with and without scatter correction. Finally, the relationship between BP(ND) and injected dose of (18)F-fallypride (3.5-17 MBq/mouse) was tested. Scatter correction improved the contrast between sources and air space within the Octamouse phantom. The magnitude of (18)F-fallypride BP(ND) in mouse striatum was invariant across the tested range of specific activities, and scatter correction increased BP(ND) by a mean of 6%; covariances of the inter- and intraoperator variability of BP(ND) were 10%. There was a positive correlation between radiochemical dose and BP(ND) with (R(2) = 0.53) and without (R(2) = 0.63) scatter correction, which was driven by increasing area under the percentage injected dose curve in the striatum. The quantitation of emission sources placed within the Octamouse is linear over a wide range of source activities. In the striatum of living mice, the magnitude of (18)F-fallypride BP(ND) was highly reproducible between operators and was constant over a 3-fold range of specific activities, indicating a lack of significant occupancy. Scatter correction improved quantitation but did not entirely correct for the dependence of BP(ND) on injected dose, which was deemed to arise because of effects propagating from detector dead time when the total radiochemical dose in the field of view exceeded 50 MBq. Given this consideration, we were still able to quantify (18)F-fallypride BP(ND) in 16 mice from a single radiosynthesis, an economy that should be generalizable to brain studies of diverse radioligands.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2010; 51(10):1576-83. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test for alpha(2) adrenergic modulation of dopamine D(2/3) receptor availability in striatum of living mice using the high-affinity ligand [(18)F]fallypride and microPET. Groups of anesthetized mice were pretreated with saline, the alpha(2)-agonist clonidine (1 mg/kg), and the alpha(2)-antagonists RX821002 (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (1 mg/kg). Dynamic microPET recordings lasting 120 min were then initiated upon i.v. tracer injection of [(18)F]fallypride. Parametric maps of [(18)F]fallypride binding potential (BP(ND)) were calculated using the Logan method, with cerebellum serving as the reference region. Mean striatal [(18)F]fallypride BP(ND) was 10.6 +/- 1.7 in the saline control animals, 8.9 +/- 1.7 (-16%; P < 0.05) in the RX821002 group, 8.3 +/- 2.6 (-22%; P < 0.05) in the yohimbine group and 10.3 +/- 2.2 (n.s.) in the clonidine group. These findings are consistent with a tonic inhibition of dopamine release by alpha(2) adrenergic receptors, such that alpha(2) blockade increased the competition from endogenous dopamine at D(2/3) receptors, thus reducing the [(18)F]fallypride BP(ND) by about 20%. Absent effects of clonidine suggest a ceiling effect in the tonic inhibition of dopamine release. This in vivo PET evidence for alpha(2)/dopaminergic interaction may be relevant to putative actions of atypical antipsychotic medications via adrenergic receptors.
    Synapse 03/2010; 64(8):654-7. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging studies with benzamide radioligands can reveal competition from endogenous binding at D(2/3)-receptors in living brain. However, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) methods suffer from limited spatial resolution, and [(11)C]-labeled ligands are only available at positron emission tomography (PET) research sites with cyclotron-radiochemistry facilities, whereas [(18)F] can be transported, due to its longer physical half-life. Therefore, we endeavored to characterize the vulnerabilities of the benzamide antagonist [(18)F]desmethoxyfallypride (DMFP) and its high-affinity congener [(18)F]fallypride (FP) to competition from endogenous dopamine in living mouse brain. Groups of awake mice were pretreated with saline, amphetamine (10 mg/kg), or reserpine (5 mg/kg), followed by i.v. tracer injections. Mice were killed at 2.5-90 min (DMFP) or 2.5-180 min (FP) circulation times. Brains were dissected and regional radioactivity concentration measured by gamma counting. Other groups of mice were anesthetized for dynamic microPET recordings with DMFP or FP. Binding potentials (BP(ND)) were calculated using cerebellum as reference region. With 90-min circulation, DMFP BP(ND) in striatum was 2.4 by dissection and 2.2 by microPET, which showed a 62% decrease in response to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release and a 33% increase after reserpine-evoked dopamine depletion. With 120-min circulation, FP BP(ND) in striatum was 24.1 by dissection and 9.2 by microPET, which showed a 31% decrease in the amphetamine group, but no effect of reserpine. Dissection showed similar sensitivities for FP binding, but only a 29% amphetamine-evoked reduction for DMFP. Relative to gold standard ex vivo results, microPET estimates of DMFP BP(ND) were unbiased, whereas FP BP(ND) in striatum was substantially underestimated. Both tracers proved suitable for revealing pharmacologically evoked changes in competition at D(2/3)-receptors in striatum of living mice.
    Synapse 12/2009; 64(4):313-22. · 2.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

26 Citations
27.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      München, Bavaria, Germany