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ABSTRACT: To describe the presentation and management of maxillofacial trauma. A retrospective study. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients presenting with maxillofacial trauma at the oral and maxillofacial surgery department of the MNH over a six year period (2001-2007). Information was gathered including age, gender, length of interval between injury and presentation to the hospital, aetiology, pattern of soft tissue injury and fractures, therapy, co-morbidity, complications and number of hospitalisation days. The 21-30-year old age group was most affected. The overall male to female ratio was 4.3:1. The major cause of maxillofacial trauma was road traffic accidents (42.3%), followed by assaults (39.1%). Over 90% of the patients sustained soft tissue injuries, with cut wounds seen most frequently (45.0%). Of the soft tissue injuries, 75% required surgical intervention. Most of the fractures were located in the mandible (52.8%). Accompanying injuries elsewhere in the body occurred in 51.5%. Complications occurred in 13.3% of the cases. The mean hospitalisation period was 4.3 days. Road traffic accidents and assaults were the most common causes of maxillofacial trauma. Males below forty years of age were the majority of the victims.East African medical journal 06/2009; 86(6):254-8.