Publications (2)3.73 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: To assess parents' liquid medication administration errors by dosing instrument type and to examine the degree to which parents' health literacy influences dosing accuracy. Experimental study. Interviews conducted in a public hospital pediatric clinic in New York, New York, between October 28, 2008, and December 24, 2008. Three hundred two parents of children presenting for care were enrolled. Parents were observed for dosing accuracy (5-mL dose) using a set of standardized instruments (2 dosing cups [one with printed calibration markings, the other with etched markings], dropper, dosing spoon, and 2 oral syringes [one with and the other without a bottle adapter]). The percentages of parents dosing accurately (within 20% of the recommended dose) were 30.5% using the cup with printed markings and 50.2% using the cup with etched markings, while more than 85% dosed accurately with the remaining instruments. Large dosing errors (>40% deviation) were made by 25.8% of parents using the cup with printed markings and 23.3% of parents using the cup with etched markings. In adjusted analyses, cups were associated with increased odds of making a dosing error (>20% deviation) compared with the oral syringe (cup with printed markings: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 26.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8-42.4; cup with etched markings: AOR = 11.0; 95% CI, 7.2-16.8). Compared with the oral syringe, cups were also associated with increased odds of making large dosing errors (cup with printed markings: AOR = 7.3; 95% CI, 4.1-13.2; cup with etched markings: AOR = 6.3; 95% CI, 3.5-11.2). Limited health literacy was associated with making a dosing error (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8). Dosing errors by parents were highly prevalent with cups compared with droppers, spoons, or syringes. Strategies to reduce errors should address both accurate use of dosing instruments and health literacy.Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 02/2010; 164(2):181-6. · 3.73 Impact Factor
Article: Use of a pictographic diagram to decrease parent dosing errors with infant acetaminophen: a health literacy perspective.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Medication dosing errors by parents are frequent. We sought to whether a pictographic dosing diagram could improve parent ability to dose infant acetaminophen, and to determine whether pictogram benefit varies by health literacy level. We conducted an experimental study of parents presenting with their children to an urban public hospital pediatric clinic. Caregivers were randomized to dose infant acetaminophen with a standard dropper using text-only or text-plus-pictogram instructions (pictographic diagram of dose). The primary outcome variable was dosing accuracy (error defined as >20% deviation above/below dose; large overdosing error defined as >1.5 times recommended dose). Caregiver health literacy was assessed by means of the Newest Vital Sign measure. A total of 299 parents were assessed (144 text-only instructions; 155 text plus pictogram); 77.9% had limited health literacy (Newest Vital Sign score 0-3). Text-plus-pictogram recipients were less likely to make an error compared to text-only recipients (43.9% vs 59.0%, P = .01; absolute risk reduction, 15.2% [95% confidence interval, 3.8-26.0]; number needed to treat, 7 [4-26]). Of text-plus-pictogram recipients, 0.6% made a large overdosing error compared to 5.6% of text-only recipients (absolute risk reduction, 4.9% [0.9-10.0]; number needed to treat, 20 [10-108]). Pictogram benefit varied by health literacy, with a statistically significant difference in dosing error evident in the text-plus-pictogram group compared to the text-only group among parents with low health literacy (50.4% vs 66.4%; P = .02), but not for parents with adequate health literacy (P = .7). Inclusion of pictographic dosing diagrams as part of written medication instructions for infant acetaminophen may help parents provide doses of medication more accurately, especially those with low health literacy. High error rates, even among parents with adequate health literacy, suggest that additional study of strategies to optimize dosing is needed.Academic pediatrics 11(1):50-7.