ABSTRACT: This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents.
In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking.
Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87).
Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 02/2012; 14(9):1057-64. · 2.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoke has detrimental effects on the respiratory system. This study investigated the associations of active and passive smoking with asthma symptoms in Hong Kong adolescents.
A total of 6,494 Hong Kong secondary school students, with a mean ± SD age of 15.0 ± 1.21 years, participated in the Health Related Behavior General Survey in 2000-2001. They reported their demographic factors (sex, age, housing type, district of living), lifestyles (smoking, drinking, extracurricular sports, eating), and asthma symptoms (exercise-induced bronchospasm [EIB] and nocturnal cough) in the questionnaire. In addition, number of smoking parents (none/one/both) and presence of a smoking best friend (yes/no) were assessed. Logistic regression models were used to determine the odds ratios (OR) of frequently having the asthma symptoms for different smoking status of students, parents, and best friend, with adjustment for demographic factors and lifestyles.
The prevalence of former, light, and heavy smokers was 17.5%, 7.7%, and 1.0%, respectively. Moreover, 35.1% of the participants had one and 3.8% had 2 parents who smoked. Heavy smokers were more likely to experience EIB with OR (95% CI) of 2.27 (1.30-3.97) and nocturnal cough with OR (95% CI) of 3.45 (1.52-7.81), as well as both symptoms with OR (95% CI) = 4.69 (1.88-11.73) when compared to those who never smoked. The corresponding OR (95% CI) for having at least one smoking parent and a smoking best friend was 1.45 (1.17-1.81), 1.61 (1.06-2.42), and 2.43 (1.37-4.31), when compared with those without a parent or best friend who smoked.
Adolescents who are heavy smokers and having parents and a best friend who smoke are more likely than others to have asthma symptoms. Both active and passive smoking are related to asthma symptoms in adolescents.
Respiratory care 02/2012; 57(9):1398-404. · 2.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the 5-year secular changes in sports participation, sedentary activity, and physical self-perceptions among Hong Kong adolescents.
A total of 2932 and 5692 secondary students, aged 13-18 participated in the Health Related Behavior General (HRBG) Survey in 1995-1996 and 2000-2001, respectively. Extracurricular sports participation at least weekly or as a team member (none, 1-2 events, 3 or more events), sedentary activities (0-1 h/day, 2 h/day or more) including television/video watching and homework were assessed. Additionally, physical self-perceptions, physical fitness (fit/very fit, moderately fit, unfit/very unfit) and body weight (intention to lose weight, satisfied, intention to gain weight) were reported. Secular trends of sports participation, and sedentary activities and physical self-perceptions were assessed.
During the 5 years, the prevalence of sports participation (at least weekly or membership) decreased significantly in boys. The prevalence of both TV/video watching and homework for at least 2 h/day increased significantly in both sexes. The prevalence of being unfit/very unfit increased significantly in girls. No significant secular difference in weight perception was observed for both sexes.
Sports participation decreased and sedentary activities increased during the 5-year period. Physical self-perceptions did not change significantly, except an increase in being physically unfit was observed in girls.
Acta Paediatrica 11/2010; 99(11):1731-4. · 2.07 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the relation between health-related physical fitness and weight status in Hong Kong adolescents.
3,204 students aged 12-18 years participated in the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project in 2006-2007. Anthropometric measures (height, weight) and health-related fitness (push-up, sit-up, sit-and-reach, 9-minute run) were assessed. Body mass index (BMI) was computed to classify participants into normal weight, underweight (Grade I, II/III), overweight, and obese groups. The associations of health-related physical fitness with BMI and weight status were examined by partial correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance, respectively.
More boys than girls were overweight or obese (18.0% vs 8.7%), but more girls than boys were underweight (22.3% vs 16.7%). Boys performed significantly (P < 0.001) better in sit-up (38.8 vs 31.6 times/min) and 9-minute run (1632.1 vs 1353.2 m), but poorer in sit-and-reach (27.4 vs 32.2 cm) than girls. All four physical fitness tests were significantly positively correlated with each other in both sexes, and BMI was only weakly correlated with sit up and sit-and-reach tests in boys. Decreasing performance (P for trend < 0.05) was observed from normal weight to overweight and obese for push-up, sit-up, and 9-minute run in both sexes. From normal weight to Grade I and Grade II/III underweight, decreasing performance (P for trend < 0.05) for sit-up and sit-and-reach in both sexes and for push-up in boys was observed.
The relations between BMI and health-related physical fitness in adolescents were non-linear. Overweight/obese and underweight adolescents had poorer performance in push-up and sit-up tests than normal weight adolescents. Different aspects of health-related physical fitness may serve as immediate indicators of potential health risks for underweight and overweight adolescents.
BMC Public Health 02/2010; 10:88. · 2.00 Impact Factor