[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common cause of mitochondrial disease in childhood. Identification of the molecular basis is difficult given the clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Most patients lack a molecular definition in routine diagnostics.
A large-scale mutation screen of 75 candidate genes in 152 patients with complex I deficiency was performed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and Sanger sequencing. The causal role of a new disease allele was confirmed by functional complementation assays. The clinical phenotype of patients carrying mutations was documented using a standardised questionnaire.
Causative mutations were detected in 16 genes, 15 of which had previously been associated with complex I deficiency: three mitochondrial DNA genes encoding complex I subunits, two mitochondrial tRNA genes and nuclear DNA genes encoding six complex I subunits and four assembly factors. For the first time, a causal mutation is described in NDUFB9, coding for a complex I subunit, resulting in reduction in NDUFB9 protein and both amount and activity of complex I. These features were rescued by expression of wild-type NDUFB9 in patient-derived fibroblasts.
Mutant NDUFB9 is a new cause of complex I deficiency. A molecular diagnosis related to complex I deficiency was established in 18% of patients. However, most patients are likely to carry mutations in genes so far not associated with complex I function. The authors conclude that the high degree of genetic heterogeneity in complex I disorders warrants the implementation of unbiased genome-wide strategies for the complete molecular dissection of mitochondrial complex I deficiency.
Journal of Medical Genetics 12/2011; 49(2):83-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory chain enzymes consist of multiple subunits encoded either by the mitochondrial or by the nuclear genome. Recently the first X-chromosomal mutations in complex I deficient males have been described. Heterozygous female carriers did not seem to be affected. Here, we describe a girl initially presenting with mild muscular hypotonia, a moderate lactic acidosis and an increased beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio. Biochemical investigations of a muscle biopsy revealed a deficiency in the amount and activity of complex I. Mutation screening of all structural subunits of complex I identified a heterozygous mutation c.94G>C, p.Gly32Arg in the X-chromosomal NDUFA1 gene. Analysis of the cDNA showed that 72% of the expressed mRNA was mutated in the muscle biopsy sample. Investigation of the X-inactivation pattern demonstrated that 74% of the paternally inherited allele was active in the muscle. This is the first report of an X-chromosomally inherited respiratory chain defect in a heterozygous female.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 05/2011; 103(4):358-61. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autosomal recessive kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) constitutes the most frequent genetic cause of terminal renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Ten causative genes (NPHP1-NPHP9 and NPHP11), whose products localize to the primary cilia-centrosome complex, support the unifying concept that cystic kidney diseases are "ciliopathies". Using genome-wide homozygosity mapping, we report here what we believe to be a new locus (NPHP-like 1 [NPHPL1]) for an NPHP-like nephropathy. In 2 families with an NPHP-like phenotype, we detected homozygous frameshift and splice-site mutations, respectively, in the X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3 (XPNPEP3) gene. In contrast to all known NPHP proteins, XPNPEP3 localizes to mitochondria of renal cells. However, in vivo analyses also revealed a likely cilia-related function; suppression of zebrafish xpnpep3 phenocopied the developmental phenotypes of ciliopathy morphants, and this effect was rescued by human XPNPEP3 that was devoid of a mitochondrial localization signal. Consistent with a role for XPNPEP3 in ciliary function, several ciliary cystogenic proteins were found to be XPNPEP3 substrates, for which resistance to N-terminal proline cleavage resulted in attenuated protein function in vivo in zebrafish. Our data highlight an emerging link between mitochondria and ciliary dysfunction, and suggest that further understanding the enzymatic activity and substrates of XPNPEP3 will illuminate novel cystogenic pathways.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2010; 120(3):791-802. · 15.39 Impact Factor