[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma, the most common and lethal type of intracranial tumor, is characterized by extensive heterogeneity at the cellular and molecular levels. The discovery of glioma stem cells (GSCs) lends support to a new paradigm in tumor biology. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the validity of using U251 glioma cells as a source of GSC culture and critically evaluate the heterogeneous stem-like phenotypes of these cells when grown under various culture conditions. The findings suggested that U251 cells (U251-Adh, U251-SC-Sph and U251-SC-Adh) showed distinctive growth patterns and self-renewal capacity. The U251 glioma cell line is endowed with certain GSC phenotypes that may be moderately enriched in vitro when transferred into stem cell culture conditions, although this is not sustainable and reproducible in vivo. Notably, glioma cells are plastic in response to their environment. The reversible adaptive plasticity contributes to the GSC heterogeneity, which may lead to the heterogeneity of glioblastoma and the differing responses to current therapies. Therefore, an improved understanding of GSC heterogeneity is urgently required for designing more effective therapies against this highly malignant brain tumor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that extensive microglia activation-mediated local inflammation contributes to neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia. We have previously shown that 4-(2-butyl-6, 7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB), a potent volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) inhibitor, suppresses pathological glutamate release and excitatory neurotoxicity in reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (rMCAO) model in vivo. In the present study, we sought to determine whether DCPIB also attenuates microglia activation that could contribute to neuronal injury in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion pathology. We show that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced microglia proliferation, migration, and secretion of cytokines and all these pathological changes were effectively inhibited by DCPIB in vitro. In the microglia/neuron co-cultures, OGD induced neuronal damage was reduced markedly in the presence of DCPIB. In rat rMCAO animal model, DCPIB significantly attenuated microglia activation and neuronal death. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is known to be a critical signaling pathway for microglia activation. We further explored a potential involvement of DCPIB in this pathway by western blot analysis. Under the conditions that MAPK pathway was activated either by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or OGD, the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 were reduced significantly in the presence of DCPIB. Altogether, our study demonstrated that DCPIB inhibits microglia activation potently under ischemic conditions both in vitro and in vivo. The DCPIB effect is likely attributable to both direct inhibition VRAC and indirect inhibition of MAPK pathway in microglia that are beneficial for the survival of neurons in cerebral ischemic conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraventricular neurocytomas (EVNs) are rare neuronal tumors included in the definition of neoplasms in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system. Although a small case series of EVNs in adults has been previously reported, EVNs in pediatric populations are extremely rare. The current case report presents the clinicopathological features of an EVN in a 2-year-old female who presented with nausea and vomiting that had lasted for five days. In addition, an analysis of the imaging features, histology, treatment and prognosis of these reported rare lesions is presented. Immunohistochemically, EVNs are characterized by the robust expression of synaptophysin, but with a lack of oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme isoform 1 (IDH1) R132/IDH2 R172 mutations and p53 immunoexpression. The treatment for EVNs in pediatric and adult populations is gross total resection, with post-operative radiation reserved for subtotal resection or recurrent disease. In addition, drop metastasis must be carefully avoided.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The highly divergent histological heterogeneities, aggressive invasion and extremely poor response to treatment make glioblastoma (GBM) one of the most lethal and difficult cancers in humans. Among key elements driving its behavior is epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), however, neither traditional therapy including neurosurgery, radiation, temozolomide, nor targeted EGFR therapeutics in clinic has generated promising results to date. Strategies are now focusing on blocking the downstream EGFR-activated metabolic pathways and the key phosphorylated kinases. Areas covered: Here, we review two major EGFR-activated downstream metabolic pathways including the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways and their key phosphorylated kinase alterations in GBMs. This review also discusses potential pharmacological progress from bench work to clinical trials in order to evaluate specific inhibitors as well as therapeutics targeting PI3K and RAS signaling pathways. Expert opinion: Several factors impede clinical progress in targeting GBM, including the high rates of acquired resistance, heterogeneity within and across the tumors, complexity of signaling pathways and difficulty in traversing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Substantial insight into genetic and molecular pathways and strategies to better tap the potential of these agents include rational combinatorial regimens and molecular phenotype-based patient enrichment, each of which will undoubtedly generate new therapeutic approaches to combat these devastating disabilities in the near future.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 06/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine appropriate protocols for the identification and management of intra operative suspicious tissues during transsphenoidal surgery.
Clinical data and pathological reports of 20 patients with intra-operative suspicious tissues during transsphenoidal surgeries were analyzed retrospectively. The methods for discriminating between adenoma and normal pituitary tissues were reviewed.
The postoperative pathological reports revealed that adenoma and normal pituitary tissues coexisted in 9 samples, while 5 samples were identified as normal pituitary tissues, 2 as adenoma tissues, and 4 as other tissues. Adenomas were distinguished from normal pituitary tissues on the basis of intra-operative appearance, texture, blood supply and possible existence of boundary.
If decisions are difficult to made during surgeries from the appearance of the suspicious tissues, pathological examinations are advised as a guidance for the next steps.
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition 05/2013; 44(3):441-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms that drive the develop-ment and aggressive progression of malignant astrocytic tumors remain obscure. Recently, in the search for endo-genous negative regulators of EGF receptor, LRIG1 was cloned and characterized as a putative tumor suppressor gene often downregulated in various human tumors, including astrocytic tumors. Although several studies have implicated the function of LRIG1 in the inhibition of tumorigenesis, its precise role and potential underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Therefore, we generated a full-length expression vector to overexpress LRIG1 in the U251 malignant glioma cell line. Introduction of exogenous LRIG1 into glioma cells inhibited cell proliferation manifested by MTT and soft agar clone assay in vitro and subcutaneously tumor xenografts. On the other hand, LRIG1 overexpression inhibited glioma growth by significantly changing the expression pattern of cyclins, resulting in delayed cell cycle. Employing transwell invasion and wound scratch assay and gelatin zymography, LRIG1 inhibited U-251 MG cell invasion and migration by attenuating MMP2 and MMP9 production. Under ligand-stimulated conditions, p-ERK levels did not change, whereas p-AKT levels were inhibited in cells with LRIG1 upregulation, indicating that LRIG1 exerts more inhibiting effects on the PI3K/AKT pathway. Our findings suggest that LRIG1 restricted glioma aggressiveness by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Restoration of LRIG1 to glioma cells could offer a novel therapeutic strategy.
International Journal of Oncology 01/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on glioma stem cell phenotype.
The glioma stem cell (GSC) from surgically resected human glioma specimens were isolated and enriched by neurosphere assay and then its differentiation was induced with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 1 µmol/L) for 1 week. Markers were determined by flow cytometry, Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Side population cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Growth characteristics were detected by neurosphere formation assay and cell cycle analysis. GSC and the differentiated cells (1×10(5)) were implanted stereotactically and intracranially into the Balb/c nude mice to compare the survival time. All data were analyzed with the SPSS software version 17.0.
ATRA potently induced the differentiation of GSC and reduced glioma stem cell phenotype. And there were an elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and a reduced expression of such stem cell makers as CD133 and Nestin. The side population rate decreased. ATRA inhibited the neurosphere formation of GSC and induced the arrest of cell growth. ATRA could prolong the survival time.
GSC may be differentiated efficiently by ATRA. The stemness of GSC decreases obviously after the differentiation of ATRA and the survival time is prolonged. Thus ATRA may be applied for targeted therapies of glioma stem cell.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma (CCH) is an exceedingly rare and highly malignant tumor of the eccrine sweat glands. Its treatment is extremely difficult due to the characteristically aggressive clinical course including repeated local recurrence and uncontrollable distal metastasis coming along with a very poor prognosis. Most published case studies recommend a wide surgical excision followed by adjuvant conservative therapy, which is generally considered to be the standard treatment. Two cases of nodular CCH of the scalp either presenting as a singular primary lesion or at an already metastatic stage were analyzed retrospectively. Wide local excision of the tumor couldn't prevent the primary carcinoma from recurring and metastasizing. Both cases received various therapies but the results were unsatisfactory. Although most authors have recommended that early wide surgical excision of the tumor is a feasible therapeutic measurement, our results raise doubts on the efficacy of this treatment strategy. As alternative approaches (i.e. chemotherapy, radiotherapy) are similarly controversial, further studies and a wide exchange of clinical experiences are crucial.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 12/2012; 32(6):931-6. · 0.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The LRIG1 [leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG)] gene is not universally downregulated in human cancers, and its role in tumorigenesis and the development of glioma has not been well addressed. In this study, we used short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-triggered RNA interference (RNAi) to block LRIG1 gene expression in the GL15 human glioma cell line. Specific downregulation of LRIG1 by shRNA resulted in significantly enhanced capabilities of proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and invasion in the GL15 cells. LRIG1 repression induced marked activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), protein kinase B (Akt) and c-Myc signaling molecules. Our results demonstrated that RNAi against LRIG1 may effectively downregulate LRIG1 gene expression. LRIG1 functions as a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of glioma via EGFR/Akt/c-Myc activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mortality of patients with malignant gliomas remains high despite the advancement in multi-modal therapy including surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), sharing some characteristics with normal neural stem cells (NSCs), contribute to the cellular origin for primary gliomas and the recurrence of malignant gliomas after current conventional therapy. Accordingly, targeting GSCs proves to be a promising avenue of therapeutic intervention. The specific tropism of NSCs to GSCs provides a novel platform for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Tropism and mobilization of NSCs are enhanced by hypoxia through upregulating chemotactic cytokines and activating several signaling pathways. Moreover, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) produced under hypoxic microenvironment of the stem cell niche play critical roles in the growth and stemness phenotypes regulation of both NSCs and GSCs. However, the definite cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIFs involvement in the process remain obscure. In this review, we focus on the pivotal roles of HIFs in migration of NSCs to GSCs and potential roles of HIFs in dictating the fates of migrated NSCs and targeted GSCs.
Neurochemical Research 09/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the diagnostic and therapeutic features of pituitary tumorous hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism.
Fifteen patients with pituitary tumorous hyperplasia were studied in clinical manifestation, pathologic, endocrinological, radiographic and therapeutic features retrospectively.
All of these patients suffered from primary hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning found that there were masses in the sellar region with equal T1 and little longer T2 signal, and which could be obviously enhanced by gadolinium EDTA injection. Diameters of these masses were between 1.1 and 2.5 cm. Thyroxine substitution therapy was ordered. Four months later, MRI scanning found that the masses disappeared and only normal pituitary gland left. Plasma thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) levels dropped to their normal ranges.
Thyroxine substitution therapy was the first choice of pituitary tumorous hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. If they are followed by TSH adenoma, or the optic chiasma was pressed by the enlarged pituitary, transsphenoidal microsurgery could be applied.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether tamoxifen (TAM) can affect resting state microglia apoptosis and about the cellular mechanism that may account for this. To explore this question, we incubated the microglia cell line BV-2 cells with TAM at different concentrations. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay, and flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the cell apoptosis rate. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was tested by flow cytometry, and Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, and Fas-L expression was detected by Western blot. The results demonstrated that TAM decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of BV-2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, disruption of Δψm was followed by up-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, Fas and Fas-L, and down-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These results indicate that TAM may induce apoptosis of BV-2 cells through both mitochondria- and death receptor-mediated pathways.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 04/2012; 32(2):221-6. · 0.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of RNAi-mediated gene silencing of LRlG1 on proliferation and invasion of the human glioma cell line U251-MG and the possible mechanisms were explored in this study. The plasmids pGenesil2-LRIG1-shRNA1 and pGenesil2-LRIG1-shRNA2 were transfected into U251-MG glioma cells respectively by using Lipofectamine 2000 and the transfected cells in which the LRIG1 expression was stably suppressed were selected by G418. The cells transfected with negative shRNA served as control. The expression levels of LRIG1 mRNA and protein were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that LRIG1 mRNA expression was reduced by 70% and 58% and LRIG1 protein expression by 58% and 26% in U251-MG cells transfected with pGenesil2-LRIG1-shRNAl and pGenesil2-LRIG1-shRNA2 relative to the negative shRNA-transfected U251-MG cells. The proliferative capacity of the LRIG1 specific siRNA-transfected cells was stronger than that of control cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that silencing LRIG1 significantly increased the percentage of S phase cells and the proliferation index (P<0.01). Moreover, silencing LRIG1 could promote the invasion of U251-MG cells (P<0.05). These findings suggested that LRIG1-targeting siRNA can exert a dramatically inhibitory effect on RNA transcription and protein expression of LRIG1, and LRIG1 down-regulation could promote the proliferation of U251-MG cells, arrest U251-MG cells in S phase, and enhance the invasion of U251-MG cells.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 04/2012; 32(2):227-32. · 0.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LRIG family shares similar structures that include a signal peptide, an extracellular region consisting of a leucine-rich repeat domain and three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. After activation of EGFR, the extracellular LRR domain and immunoglobulin-like domains of LRIG1 can bind to the extracellular parts of EGFR, resulting in recruitment of c-Cbl to the cytoplasmic domains, and induction of EGFR degradation. This study investigated the effects of overexpression of leucine-rich repeats and LRIG1 on cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity in the glioma cell line U251 and explored the possible mechanisms mediating this effect. We found that CDDP could inhibit the growth of U251 cell line and induced activation of the EGFR. Overexpression of LRIG1 increased the inhibitory effect of CDDP on the U251 cell line via the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying the effect of the combined treatment of LRIG1 and CDDP could be that LRIG1 blocked CDDP-induced EGFR activation and regulated the apoptosis proteins. These findings suggest that upregulation of LRIG1 expression enhances the CDDP sensitivity in the glioma cell line U251.
Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics 01/2012; 20(5-6):205-11. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis. The glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) represent a rare fraction of human glioblastoma cells with the capacity for multi-lineage differentiation, self-renewal and exact recapitulation of the original tumor. Interestingly, GSCs are more radioresistant compared with other tumor cells. In addition, the remarkable radioresistance of GSCs has been known to promote radiotherapy failure and therefore is associated with a significantly higher risk of a local tumor recurrence. Moreover, the hyperactive cell cycle checkpoint kinase (Chk) 1 and 2 play a pivotal role in the DNA damage response including radiation and chemical therapy. Based on aforementioned, we hypothesized that knockdown of Chk1 or Chk2 might confer radiosensitivity on GSCs and thereby increases the efficiency of radiotherapy. In this study, we knocked down the expression of Chk1 or Chk2 in human GSCs using lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to examine its effect on the radiosensitivity. After radiation, the apoptosis rate and the cell cycle of GSCs were measured with Flow Cytometry. Compared with control GSCs (apoptosis, 7.82 ± 0.38%; G2/M arrest, 60.20 ± 1.28%), Chk1 knockdown in GSCs increased the apoptosis rate (37.87 ± 0.32%) and decreased the degree of the G2/M arrest (22.37 ± 2.01%). In contrast, the radiosensitivity was not enhanced by Chk2 knockdown in GSCs. These results suggest that depletion of Chk1 may improve the radio-sensitivity of GSCs via inducing cell apoptosis. In summary, the therapy targeting Chk1 gene in the GSCs may be a novel way to treat glioblastoma.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2012; 226(4):267-74. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioma stem cell (GSC) hypothesis posits that a subpopulation of cells within gliomas have true clonogenic and tumorigenic potential. Significantly, a more controversial correlate to GSC is that cells in different culture conditions might display distinct stem cell properties. Considering these possibilities, we applied an approach comparing stem cell characteristics of C6 glioma cells under different culture conditions.
C6 cells were cultured under three different growth conditions, i.e., adherent growth in conventional 10% serum medium, non-adherent spheres growth in serum-free medium, as well as adherent growth on laminin-coated flask in serum-free medium. Growth characteristics were detected contrastively through neurosphere formation assay and cell cycle analysis. Markers were determined by immunofluorescence, relative-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. Side population cells were analyzed via flow cytometry. Tumor models were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin & eosin staining. Data analyses were performed with SPSS software (17.0).
C6 cells (C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh) showed distinctive growth patterns and proliferation capacity. Compared to suspending C6-SC-Sph, adherent C6-Adh and C6-SC-Adh displayed higher growth ratio. C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh showed enhanced capability of neurosphere formation and self-renewal. High side population ratio was detected in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. CD133 was not detected in all three kinds of cells. Conversely, Nestin and β-III-tubulin were demonstrated positive, nonetheless with no statistical significance (P > 0.05). Interestingly, lower expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh were all displayed in situ oncogenicity, while statistical difference of survival time was not confirmed.
C6 glioma cell line is endowed with some GSC phenotypes that can be moderately enriched in vitro when transferred into stem cell culture condition. The resultant tumor-spheres may be not a prerequisite or sound source of GSCs and adherent culture in stem cell medium is not a growth condition in favor of GSCs expanding in vivo.
Chinese medical journal 10/2011; 124(19):3118-26. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of over-expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 3 (LRIG3) on the cell cycle and survival of human glioma cell line U87 and U251 and explored the possible mechanisms. The LRIG3 gene was transduced into U87 and U251 cells respectively by using lentivirus and the transduced cells were selected by puromycin. The changes in LRIG3 mRNA and protein levels were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The apoptosis rate was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling and the cell cycle was flow cytometrically analyzed. Compared with control cells, LRIG3 mRNA expression in U251 and U87 cells transduced with pLVX-DsRed-LRIG3-Monomer-N1 were increased by 77.6% and 129.7%, and LRIG3 protein expression was raised by 141.3% and 322.7%, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed that LRIG3 over-expression increased the percentage of cells at G(0)/G(1) phase (P<0.01). Over-expressed LRIG3 could significantly promote the apoptosis of U87 and U251 cells (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the over-expression of LRIG3 could arrest the cell cycle in G(0)/G(1) phase, and promote apoptosis of U87 and U251 cells.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 10/2011; 31(5):667-72. · 0.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) activity has been associated with various hemorrhagic events. The biological role of HIF-1α in the hemorrhagic transformation of pituitary adenomas remains unknown. We hypothesized that fast growing tumor cells tend to predispose themselves to sublethal hypoxia and activate the HIF-1α signaling pathway, leading to hemorrhagic transformation in pituitary adenomas. Here, we used apoplectic and non-apoplectic pituitary adenomas to determine the involvement of HIF-1α signaling in intratumoral hemorrhage. We employed HIF-1α overexpression/knockdown strategies to examine the association between HIF-1α signaling and hemorrhagic presentation in vitro and in vivo. In support of our hypothesis, compared with non-hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, higher cellular proliferation was observed in hemorrhagic ones and it correlated with increased HIF-1α signaling. HIF-1α overexpression activated its downstream genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and the proapoptotic BNIP3, in MMQ pituitary adenoma cells and this up-regulation was attenuated by HIF-1 siRNA. In vivo studies using MMQ cell xenografts in nude mice showed that HIF-1α overexpression significantly promoted hemorrhagic transformation. Our study indicates that tumor hypoxia, following rapid tumor growth, may promote hemorrhagic transformation in pituitary adenomas via the HIF-1α signaling pathway.