Jennifer W Talton

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (18)53.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of smoking on early markers of cardiovascular disease (arterial stiffness) in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease Study. Participants included 606 youth (18.9 ± 3.3 years, 83% non-Hispanic white; 50% male). Six groups were defined: (1) smokers with T1D (n = 80); (2) former smokers with T1D (n = 88); (3) nonsmokers with T1D (n = 232); (4) smokers without T1D (n = 40); (5) former smokers without T1D former (n = 51); and (6) nonsmokers without T1D (n = 115). Arterial stiffness measurements included pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index, and brachial distensibility. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the independent and joint effects of T1D and smoking on arterial stiffness. Nearly 20% of both youth with and without T1D and T1D were smokers. In youth without T1D, smokers had higher trunk and arm PWV. After adjustment for potential confounders, T1D, but not smoking, was an independent predictor of PWV (P < .05). Moreover, smoking status did not modify the association between T1D and increased arterial stiffness. We found a high prevalence of smoking among youth with and without T1D; however, smoking status was not independently associated with increased arterial stiffness in youth with T1D.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In their Strategic Impact Goal Statement, the American Heart Association focused on primordial prevention of cardiovascular risk factors by defining metrics for ideal cardiovascular health (ICH). The prevalence of ICH among youth with type 1 diabetes is unknown. Youth with type 1 diabetes face an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as they age. The purpose of this report was to examine the prevalence of ICH in a population of youth with type 1 diabetes and to examine the association of ICH with measures of cardiovascular structure and function. This report is based on SEARCH CVD an ancillary study to the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth. A total of 190 adolescents with type 1 diabetes had complete data on all of the ICH metrics at baseline and had measures of arterial stiffness [pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial distensibility (BrachD), and augmentation index (AIx)] and carotid intima-media thickness completed at a follow-up visit [on average 5 yr after baseline (interquartile range 4-5)]. No subjects met the ICH criteria for all 7 metrics. Meeting an increasing number of ICH metrics was significantly associated with lower arterial stiffness [lower PWV of the trunk (β = -0.02 ±0.01; p = 0.004) and AIx (β = -2.2 ±0.66; p = 0.001), and increased BrachD (β = 0.14 ±0.07; p = 0.04)]. Increasing number of ICH metrics was significantly associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but prevalence of ICH in this population was low. Youth with type 1 diabetes could benefit from improvements in their cardiovascular health.
    Pediatric Diabetes 01/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to present and evaluate descriptively bivariate associations between urinary metabolites of pesticides and herbicides and migrant camp conditions, violations, and personal worker behaviors at home for farmworkers who do not apply pesticides. We studied 183 migrant farmworker camps in eastern North Carolina in 2010. Data and urine samples were collected from 371 men. Predictor measures included violations in six domains of housing regulations and nonviolation characteristics and personal behaviors that might impact urinary metabolites. Cockroaches and bathroom violations were predictive of increased exposure to pyrethroids and cyfluthrin/chlorpyrifos, respectively. Changing and storing clothing and shoes in sleeping rooms increased the number of detects for the diazinon metabolite. Farmworkers had exposures to multiple chemicals. No single housing domain was identified as critical to mitigating housing-related exposure; specific attention should be paid to changing and storing soiled clothing in sleeping rooms, and insect infestations. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 11/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate if presence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and their clustering as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased arterial stiffness and accelerated progression over time among youth with type 1 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Longitudinal study of 298 youth with type 1 diabetes (age 14.5 years; 46.3% female; duration 4.8 years), with two research visits conducted 5 years apart. CV factors included: waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting lipids (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides), albumin/creatinine ratio, and HbA1c. MetS was based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for youth. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the carotid-femoral segment was measured by tonometry. Mixed models were used to assess the rate of progression in PWV and the association between CV factors and PWV over time.RESULTSPWV increased significantly over time (0.145 m/s/year; P < 0.0001). MetS (P = 0.0035), large waist (P < 0.0001), and elevated BP (P = 0.0003) at baseline were each associated with worse PWV over time. These baseline factors, however, did not significantly influence the rate of progression. Increases in waist circumference (P < 0.0001), LDL-c levels (P = 0.0156), and declining glucose control (HbA1c; P = 0.0419) were independently associated with higher PWV over time.CONCLUSIONS Presence, clustering, and worsening of CV risk factors are associated with increased arterial stiffness over time in youth with type 1 diabetes. Whether improvement in CV risk factors early in life will slow the progression of arterial stiffness and reduce the burden of CV disease in this population requires further study.
    Diabetes care 10/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: This study explored the role of glycemic control on cardiac autonomic function, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), in youth with type 1 diabetes. Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort of 345 youth with type 1 diabetes (mean age, 18.5 years; duration, 10 years) participating in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study were enrolled in the ancillary SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) study. Anthropometric, metabolic, and HRV parameters were collected at the current research visit. Glycemic control over time was assessed by the mean glycated hemoglobin (A1c) levels collected over the past 6 years. Multiple linear regression analysis assessed the association between A1c over time and HRV parameters, independent of demographic and CVD risk factors. Participants were categorized into four glycemic control categories based on their mean A1c over time: Group 1, optimal (mean A1c, ≤7.4%); Group 2 (mean A1c, 7.5-8.4%); Group 3 (mean A1c, 8.5-9.4%), and Group 4, poor (mean A1c, ≥9.5%), and a linear trend was explored across these categories. Results: For every 1% increase in the average A1c over 6 years there was a 5% decrease in the SD of the normal RR interval (SDNN) (P=0.02) and 7% decrease in the root mean square successive difference of the RR interval (RMSSD) (P=0.02), independent of demographic and traditional CVD risk factors. A dose-response relationship between worsening glucose control categories and measures of overall reduced HRV was found. Conclusions: Chronic hyperglycemia is the main determinant of early cardiac autonomic dysfunction, manifested as reduced overall HRV and parasympathetic loss, among youth with type 1 diabetes.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.
    American journal of health behavior 07/2013; 37(4):449-57. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased arterial stiffness (AS) are both present in youth with type 1 diabetes. However, it is unclear whether they are associated and whether their association is independent of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease Study explored the cross-sectional relationships between HRV and several measures of AS in youth with (n = 344) and without (n = 171) type 1 diabetes. The SphygmoCor device (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) was used to measure HRV using SD of normal R-R interval (SDNN), as well as AS, using pulse wave velocity in the carotid to femoral segment (PWV-trunk) and augmentation index adjusted to a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx75). Brachial distensibility (BrachD), another index of AS, was measured with a DynaPulse instrument (Pulse Metric, San Diego, CA). Multiple linear regression analyses explored the associations between HRV and each of the three AS measures, after adjusting for demographic characteristics and traditional CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, obesity, microalbuminuria, and smoking) separately, for youth with and without type 1 diabetes.RESULTSAmong youth with type 1 diabetes, lower SDNN was associated with peripheral AS (lower BrachD, P = 0.01; r(2) = 0.30) and central AS (higher PVW-trunk, P < 0.0001; r(2) = 0.37; and higher AIx75, P = 0.007; r(2) = 0.08). These associations were attenuated with adjustment for CVD risk factors, but remained statistically significant for BrachD and PWV-trunk. While a similar association between HRV and BrachD was present in control youth, lower HRV was not associated with increased central AS or with AIx75.CONCLUSIONS Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the pathways responsible for these associations.
    Diabetes care 02/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although poor sleep quality and associated sleep disorders are associated with increased risk of job injury and multiple mental and physical health problems, scant research has examined sleep quality among Latino farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 371 male Latino farmworkers working in North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. Data on housing quality and sleep quality were collected. Access to air conditioning was significantly and positively associated with good sleep quality. This association remained when other housing characteristics and individual health indicators were controlled. Good sleep quality was associated with low levels of pain, depression, and anxiety. Poor sleep quality among Latino farmworkers was associated with poorer indicators of health. One important indicator of housing quality, air conditioning, was associated with better sleep quality. Further research is required to delineate how to improve the adequacy of farmworker housing to improve sleep quality and other health indicators.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 11/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pesticide safety training is mandated for migrant and seasonal farmworkers. However, none is required for family members, who implement home sanitation to protect against pesticide exposure and need to control pests in substandard housing. Controlled studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pesticide education programs for farmworker families, but no carefully evaluated demonstration projects have shown effectiveness in public health settings. This project evaluates a lay health promoter program to improve pesticide-related knowledge and practices. Promotoras from six agencies recruited families with children to deliver a six-lesson, in-home, culturally and educationally appropriate curriculum. Independently conducted pre- and posttests evaluated changes in knowledge and practices. Adults in 610 families completed the study. Most were from Mexico, with low levels of formal education. Significant improvements in knowledge were observed for all six lessons. Significant improvements were observed in practices related to para-occupational exposure and residential pest control. Lay health promoters with limited training and supervision can have significant impacts on families' knowledge and practices. They represent a workforce increasingly recognized as a force for reducing health disparities by providing culturally appropriate health education and other services. This study adds to the literature by demonstrating their effectiveness in a public health setting with rigorous evaluation.
    Health Promotion Practice 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in youth with and without type 1 diabetes and explored potential contributors of altered HRV.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSHRV parameters were measured among 354 youth with type 1 diabetes (mean age 18.8 years, diabetes duration 9.8 years, and mean A1C 8.9%) and 176 youth without diabetes (mean age 19.2 years) participating in the SEARCH CVD study. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between diabetes status and HRV parameters, adjusting for covariates.RESULTSCompared with control subjects, youth with type 1 diabetes had reduced overall HRV (10.09 ms lower SD of NN intervals [SDNN]) and markers of parasympathetic loss (13.5 ms reduced root mean square successive difference of NN intervals [RMSSD] and 5.2 normalized units (n.u.) reduced high frequency [HF] power) with sympathetic override (5.2 n.u. increased low frequency [LF] power), independent of demographic, anthropometric, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Older age, female sex, higher LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and presence of microalbuminuria were independently associated with lower HRV but did not account for the observed differences between youth with and without diabetes. Youth with type 1 diabetes and A1C levels ≥7.5% had significantly worse HRV parameters than control subjects; however, in youth with optimal glycemic control (A1C <7.5%), HRV parameters did not differ significantly from control subjects.CONCLUSIONS Youth with type 1 diabetes have signs of early cardiac autonomic neuropathy: reduced overall HRV and parasympathetic loss with sympathetic override. The main driver of these subclinical abnormalities appears to be hyperglycemia.
    Diabetes care 09/2012; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Migrant farmworkers in North Carolina (n = 300) reported eye injuries, circumstances of injuries, and outcomes during lifetime U.S. agriculture work. Seventeen injuries were reported by 15 farmworkers; five resulted in lost work time. Most reported injuries were penetrating or open wounds, often caused by branches or other foreign objects. Injuries were seldom reported to employers; and treatment at clinics, when received, was often delayed. The incidence rate of lost work-time injuries of 23.8/10,000 worker years (95% confidence interval 7.5, 55.9), exceeds the 2009 national incidence rate (6.9/10,000). Migrant farmworkers constitute a vulnerable population; better occupational safety protections should be considered.
    Journal of Agromedicine 01/2012; 17(1):63-9. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the authors estimated the prevalence of elevated daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and musculoskeletal pain among Latino migrant farmworkers, and examined the relationship among these symptoms. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of migrant farmworkers (N = 300) conducted in eastern North Carolina in 2009. Eleven percent of Latino farmworkers reported elevated levels of daytime sleepiness, 28% reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, and 5% reported moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain on a daily or weekly basis. Depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness were positively associated. Depression and daytime sleepiness may increase risk of injury; further research regarding sleep issues is warranted.
    Journal of Agromedicine 01/2012; 17(1):70-80. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression and sleepiness are both risk factors for occupational accidents and unintentional injury. Relatively little is known about the experiences of these risk factors in the immigrant Latino farmworker population. This analysis uses prospective panel data from a sample of Latino farmworkers in eastern North Carolina that were collected at monthly intervals during the 2008 agricultural season to (1) describe depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness among immigrant Latino farmworkers across the agricultural season; (2) delineate associations of depressive symptoms with sleepiness across time; and (3) determine whether depressive symptoms precede sleepiness, or if sleepiness precedes depressive symptoms. Results indicated that 45% of farmworkers experienced elevated depressive symptoms across the season, whereas 20% experienced elevated sleepiness. Elevated depressive symptoms were more common among farmworkers living in barracks, and less common among those living in trailers. Sleepiness was more common among women than men. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms contributed to sleepiness, or that sleepiness contributed to depressive symptoms. The pattern of results suggests that a substantial proportion of Latino farmworkers experience levels of depressive symptoms or sleepiness that places them at risk for occupational accident or unintentional injury. The results also suggest that depressive symptoms and sleepiness do not cause each other; rather, the association of depressive symptoms with sleepiness hints at the possibility of a common physiologic mechanism such as circadian disruption.
    Journal of Agromedicine 10/2011; 16(4):251-60. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe an etiologic approach to classification of diabetes types in youth based on the 1997 American Diabetes Association (ADA) framework, using data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. SEARCH conducted a comprehensive assessment of 2,291 subjects aged <20 years with recently diagnosed diabetes. Using autoimmunity (at least one of two diabetes autoantibodies) and insulin sensitivity (equation validated against hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps) as the main etiologic markers, we described four categories along a bidimensional spectrum: autoimmune plus insulin-sensitive (IS), autoimmune plus insulin-resistant (IR), nonautoimmune plus IS, and nonautoimmune plus IR. We then explored how characteristics, including genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity (HLA genotypes), insulin deficiency, and clinical factors varied across these four categories. Most subjects fell into either the autoimmune plus IS (54.5%) or nonautoimmune plus IR categories (15.9%) and had characteristics that align with traditional descriptions of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The group classified as autoimmune plus IR (19.5%) had similar prevalence and titers of diabetes autoantibodies and similar distribution of HLA risk genotypes to those in the autoimmune plus IS group, suggesting that it includes individuals with type 1 diabetes who are obese. The group classified as nonautoimmune plus IS (10.1%) likely includes individuals with undetected autoimmunity but may also include those with monogenic diabetes and thus requires further testing. The SEARCH study offers researchers and clinicians a practical application for the etiologic classification of diabetes type and at the same time identifies a group of youths who would benefit from further testing.
    Diabetes care 06/2011; 34(7):1628-33. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities (FTG) was a national initiative in which local Head Start (HS) agencies, in partnership with other community organizations, implemented a mix of evidence-based family-strengthening and community-strengthening strategies. The evaluation of FTG used a quasi-experimental design to compare 14 communities that participated in the FTG intervention with 14 matched comparison communities. Telephone surveys were conducted with two cohorts of the primary caregivers of children in HS at baseline and then annually for 2 years. The survey was also administered to repeated cross-sectional samples of primary caregivers of young children who were not enrolled in HS. No consistent evidence was found in changes in family functioning or neighborhood conditions when the 14 FTG sites were compared to 14 matched sites. However, caregivers of young children who were not in HS in three high-implementing FTG sites showed evidence of improvements in neighborhood organization, neighborhood norms against substance abuse, and child disciplinary practices. Results provide highly limited support for the concept that family and neighborhood conditions that are likely to affect child development and well-being can be changed through organized efforts implemented by local HS programs.
    Evaluation Review 04/2011; 35(2):153-88. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and correlates of elevated blood pressure (BP) in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus by using data from the SEARCH Study. The analysis included youth aged 3 to 17 years with type 1 (n = 3691) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 410) who attended a research visit. Elevated BP was defined as systolic or diastolic values >or=95 percentile, regardless of drug use. In youth with elevated BP, awareness was defined as self-report of an earlier diagnosis. Control was defined as BP values <90th percentile and <120/90 mm Hg in youth with an earlier diagnosis who were taking BP medications. The prevalence of elevated BP in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus was 5.9%; minority ethnic groups, obese adolescents, and youth with poor glycemic control were disproportionately affected. In contrast, 23.7% of adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus had elevated BP (P < .0001), Similarly, 31.9% of youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated BP were aware, compared with only 7.4% of youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (P < .0001). Once BP was diagnosed and treated, control was similar in type 1 (57.1%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (40.6%). Our findings identify high-risk groups of youth with diabetes mellitus at which screening and treatment efforts should be directed.
    The Journal of pediatrics 08/2010; 157(2):245-251.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited data document the multiple and repeated pesticide absorption experienced by farmworkers in an agricultural season or their risk factors. Data were collected from 196 farmworkers four times at monthly intervals in 2007. Urine samples were tested for 12 pesticide urinary metabolites. Questionnaire data provided measures of exposure risks. Farmworkers had at least one detection for many pesticide urinary metabolites; for example, 84.2% had at least one detection for acephate, 88.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Most farmworkers had multiple detections for specific metabolites; for example, 64.8% had two or more detections for acephate, 64.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 79.1% for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and 86.7% for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Housing type had a consistent significant association with metabolite detections. Farmworkers are exposed to multiple pesticides across an agricultural season, and they experience repeated exposures to the same pesticides. Reducing farmworker pesticide exposure and delineating the health outcomes of this exposure require more detailed data. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:802-813, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 08/2010; 53(8):802-13. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundImmigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure.ObjectivesTo examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US.MethodsWe analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures.ResultsGeometric mean urinary metals concentrations (μg/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not.ConclusionsThis first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.
    Environmental Research. 01/2010;

Publication Stats

56 Citations
53.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Department of Biostatistical Sciences
      • • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States