Pauline Byakika-Kibwika

Makerere University, Kampala, Central Region, Uganda

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Publications (23)58.9 Total impact

  • Amn Namutebi, Mrk Kamya, P Byakika-Kibwika
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    ABSTRACT: Cohorts describing cause specific mortality in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) operate on an outpatient basis. Hospitalized patients represent the spectrum and burden of severe morbidity and mortality in patients on ART.
    African health sciences. 12/2013; 13(4):977-85.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine during rifampicin intake and after stopping rifampicin. STUDY DESIGN:: An open-label, two-phase, longitudinal drug interaction study with patients serving as their own controls. METHODS:: We recruited HIV-1-seropositive Ugandan adults who were receiving rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment and who did not have malaria. Pharmacokinetic sampling after six doses of artemether-lumefantrine was performed during rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment (phase 1) and repeated at least 3 weeks after stopping rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment (phase 2). RESULTS:: Six and five patients completed phases 1 and 2, respectively. Median age and weight were 30 years and 64 kg. Artemether and dihydroartemisinin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) were significantly lower by 89% [geometric mean ratio (GMR) 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.11, 0.05-0.26] and 85% (0.15, 0.10-0.23), respectively, during rifampicin-based treatment when compared to AUC0-12h after stopping rifampicin intake. Similarly, artemether and dihydroartemisinin Cmax were 83% (0.17, 0.08-0.39) and 78% (0.22, 0.15-0.33) lower, respectively, during rifampicin treatment. For artemether, mean (±SD) C12 was 0.5(±1.0) and 5.9(±2.5) ng/ml in phases 1 and 2, respectively. Corresponding values for dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were 0.3(±0.4) and 4.7(±2.0) ng/ml, respectively. Day 8 lumefantrine concentration was significantly lower by 84% (GMR 90% CI 0.16, 0.09-0.27), and AUCDay3-Day25 was significantly lower by 68% (GMR 90% CI 0.32, 0.21-0.49) during rifampicin-based treatment when compared to exposure values after stopping rifampicin. CONCLUSION:: Pharmacokinetic parameters for artemether-lumefantrine were markedly lower during rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment. Artemether-lumefantrine should not be co-administered with rifampicin.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2013; 27(6):961-965. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The group of infections known as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) collectively affect one billion people worldwide, equivalent to one-sixth of the world's population. The NTDs cause severe physical and emotional morbidity, and have a profound effect on cycles of poverty; it is estimated that NTDs account for 534 000 deaths per year. NTDs such as soil-transmitted helminth infections and the vector-borne protozoal infections leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis occur predominantly in the most economically disadvantaged and marginalized communities. It is estimated that all low-income countries harbour at least five of the NTDs simultaneously. NTDs are neglected because they do not individually rank highly in terms of mortality data, and because they affect populations with little political voice. There is considerable geographic overlap between areas with high prevalence of NTDs and HIV, raising the possibility of complex polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions. Antiretrovirals pose a particularly high risk for potential drug-drug interactions, which may be pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in nature and can result in raising or lowering plasma or tissue concentrations of co-prescribed drugs. Elevated drug concentrations may be associated with drug toxicity and lower drug concentrations may be associated with therapeutic failure. The aim of this paper is to review the currently available data on interactions between antiretrovirals and drugs used in the management of NTDs. It is intended to serve as a resource for policy makers and clinicians caring for these patients, and to support the recent WHO 2020 Roadmap and the 2012 London Declaration on NTDs.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2013; 27(5):675-686. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scale-up of HIV treatment services may have contributed to an increase in functional health facilities available in resource-limited settings and an increase in patient use of facilities and retention in care. As more patients are reached with medicines, monitoring patient safety is increasingly important. Limited data from resource-limited settings suggest that medication error and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions may pose a significant risk to patient safety. Commonly cited causes of medication error in the developed world include the speed and complexity of the medication use cycle combined with inadequate systems and processes. In resource-limited settings, specific factors may contribute, such as inadequate human resources and high disease burden. Management of drug-drug interactions may be complicated by limited access to alternative medicines or laboratory monitoring. Improving patient safety by addressing the issue of antiretroviral drug-drug interactions has the potential not just to improve healthcare for individuals, but also to strengthen health systems and improve vital communication among healthcare providers and with regulatory agencies.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2012; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Co-administration of artemether/lumefantrine with antiretroviral therapy has potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions. We investigated drug-drug interactions between artemether/lumefantrine and efavirenz or nevirapine. We performed a cross-over study in which HIV-infected adults received standard six-dose artemether/lumefantrine 80/480 mg before and at efavirenz or nevirapine steady state. Artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, efavirenz and nevirapine plasma concentrations were measured and compared. Efavirenz significantly reduced artemether maximum concentration (C(max)) and plasma AUC (median 29 versus 12 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 119 versus 25 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01), dihydroartemisinin C(max) and AUC (median 120 versus 26 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 341 versus 84 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01), and lumefantrine C(max) and AUC (median 8737 versus 6331 ng/mL, P = 0.03, and 280 370 versus 124 381 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01). Nevirapine significantly reduced artemether C(max) and AUC (median 28 versus 11 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 123 versus 34 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01) and dihydroartemisinin C(max) and AUC (median 107 versus 59 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 364 versus 228 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01). Lumefantrine C(max) and AUC were non-significantly reduced by nevirapine. Artemether/lumefantrine reduced nevirapine C(max) and AUC (median 8620 versus 4958 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 66 329 versus 35 728 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01), but did not affect efavirenz exposure. Co-administration of artemether/lumefantrine with efavirenz or nevirapine resulted in a reduction in artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine and nevirapine exposure. These drug interactions may increase the risk of malaria treatment failure and development of resistance to artemether/lumefantrine and nevirapine. Clinical data from population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic trials evaluating the impact of these drug interactions are urgently needed.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2012; 67(9):2213-21. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a medical emergency with high mortality. Prompt achievement of therapeutic concentrations of highly effective anti-malarial drugs reduces the risk of death. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous artesunate in Ugandan adults with severe malaria. METHODS: Fourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria requiring parenteral therapy were treated with 2.4 mg/kg intravenous artesunate. Blood samples were collected after the initial dose and plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin measured by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study was approved by the Makerere University Faculty of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (Ref2010-015) and Uganda National Council of Science and Technology (HS605) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01122134). RESULTS: All study participants achieved prompt resolution of symptoms and complete parasite clearance with median (range) parasite clearance time of 17 (8-24) hours. Median (range) maximal artesunate concentration (Cmax) was 3260 (1020-164000) ng/mL, terminal elimination half-life (T1/2) was 0.25 (0.1-1.8) hours and total artesunate exposure (AUC) was 727 (290-111256) ngh/mL. Median (range) dihydroartemisinin Cmax was 3140 (1670-9530) ng/mL, with Tmax of 0.14 (0.6 - 6.07) hours and T1/2 of 1.31 (0.8-2.8) hours. Dihydroartemisinin AUC was 3492 (2183-6338) ngh/mL. None of the participants reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were achieved rapidly with rapid and complete symptom resolution and parasite clearance with no adverse events.
    Malaria Journal 04/2012; 11(1):132. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of food on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and ritonavir in 12 Ugandan patients receiving lopinavir coformulated with ritonavir (LPV/r) tablets using a crossover design. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed 7 days apart after LPV/r dosing under moderate fat, high fat, and fasted meal conditions. Lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with the fasted state, a high fat meal reduced lopinavir and ritonavir area under the curve by 14% and 29%, respectively. With a moderate fat meal, area under the curve for both drugs was similar to the fasted state.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2012; 60(3):295-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Mohammed Lamorde, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Concepta Merry
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy has improved the prognosis of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Palella et al, 1998). Currently, antiretroviral therapy is the only treatment that has demonstrated efficacy for HIV. However, herbal medicines are widely used by HIV patients to complement conventional therapy. In a cross-sectional study in the UK, 61% of patients on antiretroviral therapy had used herbal medicines or supplements (Ladenheim et al, 2008) while in a South African study, 30% of patients admitted herbal medicine use (Peltzer et al, 2008). In western countries, commonly used herbal medicines include garlic, echinacea, aloe, St John's wort and ginseng. These remedies are widely available and accessible without prescription in many countries. Therefore, co-treatment with antiretroviral therapy may occur, even without the knowledge of HIV clinicians (Peltzer et al, 2008).
    British journal of hospital medicine (London, England: 2005) 03/2012; 73(3):132-6. · 0.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of HIV/malaria-coinfected patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artemisinin-based combination therapy has potential for drug interactions. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine after administration of a single dose of 80/480 mg of artemether/lumefantrine to HIV-infected adults, taken with and without lopinavir/ritonavir. A two-arm parallel study of 13 HIV-infected ART-naive adults and 16 HIV-infected adults stable on 400/100 mg of lopinavir/ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 00619944). Each participant received a single dose of 80/480 mg of artemether/lumefantrine under continuous cardiac function monitoring. Plasma concentrations of artemether, dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine were measured. Co-administration of artemether/lumefantrine with lopinavir/ritonavir significantly reduced artemether maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) [median (range): 112 (20-362) versus 56 (17-236) ng/mL, P = 0.03; and 264 (92-1129) versus 151 (38-606) ng · h/mL, P < 0.01]. Dihydroartemisinin C(max) and AUC were not affected [66 (10-111) versus 73 (31-224) ng/mL, P = 0.55; and 213 (68-343) versus 175 (118-262) ng · h/mL P = 0.27]. Lumefantrine C(max) and AUC increased during co-administration [2532 (1071-5957) versus 7097 (2396-9462) ng/mL, P < 0.01; and 41,119 (12,850-125,200) versus 199,678 (71,205-251,015) ng · h/mL, P < 0.01]. Co-administration of artemether/lumefantrine with lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases lumefantrine exposure, but decreases artemether exposure. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic trials will be highly valuable in evaluating the clinical significance of this interaction and determining whether dosage modifications are indicated.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 02/2012; 67(5):1217-23. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV infection affects the clinical pattern of malaria. There is emerging evidence to suggest that previously documented interactions may be modified by recently scaled-up HIV and malaria interventions. Prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) in combination with use of insecticide-treated nets can markedly decrease the incidence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant adults and children even in the setting of antifolate resistance-conferring mutations that are currently common in Africa. Nonetheless, additional interventions are needed to protect HIV-infected people that reside in high-malaria-transmission areas. Artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are highly efficacious and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected persons. Coadministration of antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs creates the potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions that may increase (causing enhancement of malaria treatment efficacy and post-treatment prophylaxis and/or unanticipated toxicity) or reduce (creating risk for treatment failure) antimalarial drug exposure. Further studies are needed to elucidate potentially important pharmacokinetic interactions between commonly used antimalarials, antiretrovirals and TS and their clinical implications. Data on the benefits of long-term TS prophylaxis among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy who have achieved immune-reconstitution are limited. Studies to address these questions are ongoing or planned, and the results should provide the evidence base required to guide the prevention and treatment of malaria in HIV-infected patients.
    Future Virology 01/2012; 7(7):699-708. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of food on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a proprietary fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine/efavirenz. Fifteen Ugandan HIV-1 patients at steady-state dosing with TDF/emtricitabine/efavirenz were admitted for 24-hour intensive pharmacokinetic sampling after dosing in the fasting state. Blood sampling was repeated seven days later with TDF/emtricitabine/efavirenz administered with food (19 g fat). Drug concentrations in plasma were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of parameters were calculated (reference, fasting). For efavirenz, GMRs (90% CIs) for C(max), AUC(0-24), and C(24) were 1.47 (1.24-1.75), 1.13 (1.03-1.23), and 1.01 (0.91-1.11), respectively. Corresponding GMRs were 1.04 (0.84-1.27), 1.19 (1.10-1.29), and 0.99 (0.82-1.19) for tenofovir, 0.83 (0.76-0.92), 0.87 (0.78-0.97), and 0.91 (0.73-1.14) for emtricitabine. Stable patients may take the FDC without meal restrictions. The FDC should be taken without food by patients experiencing central nervous system toxicities.
    AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:105980.
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    ABSTRACT: Mentoring is a core component of medical education and career success. There is increasing global emphasis on mentorship of young scientists in order to train and develop the next leaders in global health. However, mentoring efforts are challenged by the high clinical, research and administrative demands. We evaluated the status and nature of mentoring practices at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MAKCHS). Pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires were sent by email to all Fogarty alumni at the MAKCHS (mentors) and each of them was requested to complete and email back the questionnaire. In addition to training level and number of mentors, the questionnaires had open-ended questions covering themes such as; status of mentorship, challenges faced by mentors and strategies to improve and sustain mentorship within MAKCHS. Similarly, open-ended questionnaires were sent and received by email from all graduate students (mentees) registered with the Uganda Society for Health Scientists (USHS). Qualitative data from mentors and mentees was analyzed manually according to the pre-determined themes. Twenty- two out of 100 mentors responded (14 email and 8 hard copy responses). Up to 77% (17/22) of mentors had Master's-level training and only 18% (4/22) had doctorate-level training. About 40% of the mentors had ≥ two mentees while 27% had none. Qualitative results showed that mentors needed support in terms of training in mentoring skills and logistical/financial support to carry out successful mentorship. Junior scientists and students reported that mentorship is not yet institutionalized and it is currently occurring in an adhoc manner. There was lack of awareness of roles of mentors and mentees. The mentors mentioned the limited number of practicing mentors at the college and thus the need for training courses and guidelines for faculty members in regard to mentorship at academic institutions. Both mentors and mentees were willing to improve mentorship practices at MAKCHS. There is need for institutional commitment to uphold and sustain the mentorship best practices. We recommend a collaborative approach by the stakeholders in global health promotion to build local capacity in mentoring African health professionals.
    BMC Medical Education 07/2011; 11:53. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. We aimed to assess cardiac conduction safety of coadministration of the CYP3A4 inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and the CYP3A4 substrate artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in HIV-positive Ugandans. Methods. Open-label safety study of HIV-positive adults administered single-dose AL (80/400 mg) alone or with LPV/r (400/100 mg). Cardiac function was monitored using continuous electrocardiograph (ECG). Results. Thirty-two patients were enrolled; 16 taking LPV/r -based ART and 16 ART naïve. All took single dose AL. No serious adverse events were observed. ECG parameters in milliseconds remained within normal limits. QTc measurements did not change significantly over 72 hours although were higher in LPV/r arm at 24 (424 versus 406; P = .02) and 72 hours (424 versus 408; P = .004) after AL intake. Conclusion. Coadministration of single dose of AL with LPV/r was safe; however, safety of six-dose AL regimen with LPV/r should be investigated.
    Chemotherapy research and practice. 01/2011; 2011:393976.
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of malaria in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) poses significant challenges. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is one of the artemisisnin-based combination therapies recommended for treatment of malaria. The drug combination is highly efficacious against sensitive and multidrug resistant falciparum malaria. Both artemether and lumefantrine are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes which metabolize the protease inhibitors (PIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) used for HIV treatment. Coadministration of NNRTIs and PIs with AL could potentially cause complex pharmacokinetic drug interactions. NNRTI by inducing CYP450 3A4 enzyme and PIs by inhibiting CYP450 3A4 enzymes could influence both artemether and lumefantrine concentrations and their active metabolites dihydroartemisinin and desbutyl-lumefantrine, predisposing patients to poor treatment response, toxicity, and risk for development of resistance. There are scanty data on these interactions and their consequences. Pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate these interactions in the target populations are urgently needed.
    Malaria research and treatment. 01/2011; 2011:703730.
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    ABSTRACT: rifampicin lowers nevirapine plasma concentrations by inducing cytochrome P450. However, few data are available on this interaction during the lead-in period of nevirapine treatment. eighteen HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected adults receiving rifampicin daily as part of anti-tuberculosis therapy were evenly randomized to nevirapine initiation by dose escalation (NVP200) or nevirapine initiation at 200 mg twice daily (NVP400). Subjects underwent 12 h intensive pharmacokinetic sampling on Days 7, 14 and 21 of nevirapine treatment. A minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 3000 ng/mL was used to interpret nevirapine concentrations 12 h after dosing (C(12)). Trial registration number: NCT00617643 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). day 7 geometric mean nevirapine C(12) [90% confidence interval (CI)] was 1504 (1127-2115) ng/mL and 3148 (2451-4687) ng/mL in the NVP200 and NVP400 arms, respectively (P < 0.01). Nevirapine C(12) on Days 14 and 21 was similar. On Day 21, nevirapine concentration in 64% of patients was below the MEC. On Day 7, geometric mean area under the curve (AUC(0-12)) was lower in the NVP200 arm, 25 223 (90% CI, 21 978-29 695) ng·h/mL versus 43 195 (35 607-57 035) ng·h/mL in the NVP400 arm (P  <  0.01). Similarly, on Day 14, nevirapine AUC(0-12) was lower in the NVP200 arm 23 668 (18 253-32 218) ng·h/mL versus the NVP400 arm 44 918 (36 264-62 769) ng·h/mL (P = 0.03). in co-treated patients, nevirapine concentrations were below the MEC during initiation with dose escalation. Nevirapine initiation at the maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily is preferred. Sub-therapeutic nevirapine concentrations were common at Day 21 with either regimen. Evaluation of higher nevirapine maintenance doses may be considered.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2010; 66(1):180-3. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conflicting data exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on steady-state nevirapine pharmacokinetics (PK), although steady-state nevirapine concentrations during pregnancy have never been characterized in sub-Saharan Africa. This was a longitudinal intensive PK study in Ugandan pregnant women receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Participants underwent intensive 12-hour PK sampling during the second trimester (T2; n = 4), third trimester (T3; n = 15) and 6 weeks postpartum (PP; n = 15). HIV-1 RNA was performed within 2 weeks of each visit. Nevirapine C12 above 3000 ng/mL was classified as optimal based on the suggested value for therapeutic drug monitoring. The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine were influenced by pregnancy, demonstrated by a 20% reduction in the maximum concentration, minimum concentration (C12), and area under the curve between T3 and PP visits (P = 0.001, P = 0.011 and P = 0.005, respectively). Ten subjects (66.7%) had C12 values <3000 ng/mL during T3. Of these participants, 7 partcipant's C12 concentrations increased to >3000 ng/mL during the PP visit. HIV-1 RNA were <1000 copies per milliliter at T3 and <400 copies per milliliter at PP in all patients. Nevirapine exposure was reduced in Ugandan women during their third trimester compared with the same women PP, however, HIV RNA remained <1000 copies per milliliter. The long-term impact of intermittent suboptimal nevirapine concentrations during pregnancy is unknown.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2010; 55(3):345-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS recognition, control and treatment in Sembabule, Kamuli, Kabale and Gulu districts in Uganda. In this study, 25 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The TMPs could recognize important signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. The majority of practitioners treated patients who were already receiving allopathic medicines including antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) prescribed by allopathic practitioners. There were 103 species of medicinal plants identified in this survey. Priority plants identified include Aloe spp., Erythrina abyssinica, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Psorospermum febrifugum, Mangifera indica and Warburgia salutaris. There was low consensus among TMPs on the plants used. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used except in Gulu where mono-preparations were common. Plant parts frequently used were leaves (33%), stem bark (23%) and root bark (18%). About 80% of preparations were administered orally in variable doses over varied time periods. The TMP had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Numerous medicinal plants for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients were identified in the four districts surveyed and the role of these plants in the management of opportunistic infections warrants further investigation as these plants may have a role in Uganda's public health approach to HIV/AIDS control.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2010; 130(1):43-53. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artemether-lumefantrine is one of the artemisisnin-based combination therapies recommended for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The drug combination is highly efficacious against sensitive and multidrug resistant falciparum malaria. It offers the advantage of rapid clearance of parasites by artemether and the slower elimination of residual parasites by lumefantrine. The combination can be used in all populations except pregnant mothers in the first trimester where safety is still uncertain. There are still concerns about safety and pharmacokinetics of the drug combination in children, especially infants, pregnant mothers and drug interactions with mainly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors used for HIV therapy.
    Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2010; 6:11-20.
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    P Byakika-Kibwika, G Ndeezi, M R Kamya
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    ABSTRACT: Severe malaria is responsible for the high load of malaria mortality. It is not clearly understood why some malaria episodes progress to severe malaria. To determine factors associated with severe malaria in children aged 6 months to 5 years living in Kampala. Over a 6-month period, 100 children with severe malaria were matched by age and place of residence with 100 children with non-severe malaria. We collected health care information from care takers. Mean duration of illness before getting antimalarial treatment was shorter for controls than cases (8 hours vs. 20 hours, p 0.015). Children with severe malaria were less likely to have been treated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the preceding 2 weeks (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-0.85, p 0.016). Odds of severe malaria were higher in those who reported lack of protective measures (mosquito coils (OR = 20.63, 95% CI 1.5-283.3, p=0.02 and insecticide sprays OR 10.93, 95% CI 1.13-105.64, p=0.03), although few reported their use. Early anti-malarial treatment and use of barriers against mosquitoes prevent severe malaria in children. There is need to increase the use of barriers against mosquito bites and to scale up prompt treatment and community-based interventions to reduce the incidence of severe malaria in children.
    African health sciences 09/2009; 9(3):206-10.
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters and tolerability of Triomune 40 (stavudine 40 mg, lamivudine 150 mg and nevirapine 200 mg) and branded formulations of these drugs in HIV-infected Ugandans. This includes a randomized, open-label, cross-over study of HIV-infected patients stable on therapy for 1 month. Patients were randomized to generic or branded formulation. Plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed after 1 month. The following day, alternate formulation was administered, and 1 month later, drug pharmacokinetics were re-assessed. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined using HPLC-UV detection. Similarity between steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters was assessed using the US Food and Drug Administration standards for bioequivalency testing. Tolerability was assessed using questionnaires. Sixteen (10 females) patients completed the study. Median (IQR) age, weight and CD4 count were 37 (33.7-40) years, 65 (63.4-66) kg and 292 (220.7-344.5) cells/mm(3), respectively. All patients received co-trimoxazole. The geometric mean ratio (90% CI) for stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine was 0.92 (0.78-1.08), 1.11 (0.95-1.30) and 0.84 (0.64-1.11), respectively, for C(max), and 0.83 (0.70-0.97), 1.06 (0.94-1.20) and 0.88 (0.71-1.10), respectively, for AUC. Stavudine plasma concentrations were significantly lower for the generic formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameter inter-individual variability ranged from 29% to 99%. There were no differences in tolerability for the two formulations. Pharmacokinetic profiles of generic and branded drugs were similar. Differences particularly with regard to stavudine were demonstrated. Surveillance of the quality of generic antiretroviral drugs in the target populations is needed. Capacity building for pharmacokinetic research in resource-limited settings is a priority.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2008; 62(5):1113-7. · 5.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

81 Citations
58.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Makerere University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Infectious Diseases Institute
      Kampala, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2012
    • Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University
      Kampala, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2007
    • Makerere University Business School
      Kampala, Central Region, Uganda