[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in RAD51D have been associated with an increased risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and although they have been observed in the context of breast and ovarian cancer families, the association with breast cancer is unclear. The aim of this current study was to validate the reported association of RAD51D with ovarian cancer and assess for an association with breast cancer. We screened for RAD51D mutations in BRCA1/2 mutation-negative index cases from 1,060 familial breast and/or ovarian cancer families (including 741 affected by breast cancer only) and in 245 unselected ovarian cancer cases. Exons containing novel non-synonymous variants were screened in 466 controls. Two overtly deleterious RAD51D mutations were identified among the unselected ovarian cancers cases (0.82%) but none were detected among the 1,060 families. Our data provide additional evidence that RAD51D mutations are enriched among ovarian cancer patients, but are extremely rare among familial breast cancer patients.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54772. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the BRCA1 gene confer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, yet routine clinical genetic screening is limited to the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries, precluding the identification of mutations in noncoding and untranslated regions (UTR). As 3'UTR mutations can influence cancer susceptibility by altering protein and microRNA (miRNA) binding regions, we screened the BRCA1 3'UTR for mutations in a large series of BRCA-mutation negative, population and clinic-based breast cancer cases, and controls. Fifteen novel BRCA1 3'UTR variants were identified, the majority of which were unique to either cases or controls. Using luciferase reporter assays, three variants found in cases, c.(*) 528G>C, c.(*) 718A>G, and c.(*) 1271T>C and four found in controls, c.(*) 309T>C, c.(*) 379G>A, c.(*) 823C>T, and c.(*) 264C>T, reduced 3'UTR activity (P < 0.02), whereas two variants found in cases, c.(*) 291C>T and c.(*) 1139G>T, increased 3'UTR activity (P < 0.01). Three case variants, c.(*) 718A>G, c.(*) 800T>C, and c.(*) 1340_1342delTGT, were predicted to create new miRNA binding sites and c.(*) 1340_1342delTGT caused a reduction (25%, P = 0.0007) in 3'UTR reporter activity when coexpressed with the predicted targeting miRNA, miR-103. This is the most comprehensive identification and analysis of BRCA1 3'UTR variants published to date.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.06, p = 0.023). There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I2 = 49.3%; p =
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AM), 9 Gene Environment Interaction and Breast Cancer in Germany (GENICA): Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, and University Tü bingen, Stuttgart and Tü bingen, Germany (HB, Christina Justenhoven); Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany (UH); Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany (YDK,); Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty of the University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany (Hans-Peter Fischer); Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum, Germany (Thomas Brü ning, Beate Pesch, Volker Harth, Sylvia Rabstein), 10 Amsterdam Breast Cancer Study (ABCS): Netherlands Cancer Institute, Departments of Experimental Therapy, Epidemiology and Molecular Pathology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AB, MKS, LJVV, LMB), 11 British Breast Cancer Study (BBCS):
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence that overtly inactivating mutations in RAD51C predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer but the prevalence of such mutations, and whether they are associated with a particular clinical phenotype, remains unclear. Resolving these questions has important implications for the implementation of RAD51C into routine clinical genetic testing. Consequently, we have performed a large RAD51C mutation screen of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families, and the first study of unselected patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Our data confirm a consistent but low frequency (2/335 families) of inactivating RAD51C mutations among families with a history of both breast and ovarian cancer and an absence of mutations among breast cancer only families (0/1,053 families). Our data also provide support for the designation of the missense variant p.Gly264Ser as a moderate penetrance allele.
Human Mutation 01/2012; 33(1):95-9. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiated mammary epithelium shows apicobasal polarity, and loss of tissue organization is an early hallmark of breast carcinogenesis. In BRCA1 mutation carriers, accumulation of stem and progenitor cells in normal breast tissue and increased risk of developing tumors of basal-like type suggest that BRCA1 regulates stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of BRCA1 in this process and its link to carcinogenesis remain unknown. Here we depict a molecular mechanism involving BRCA1 and RHAMM that regulates apicobasal polarity and, when perturbed, may increase risk of breast cancer. Starting from complementary genetic analyses across families and populations, we identified common genetic variation at the low-penetrance susceptibility HMMR locus (encoding for RHAMM) that modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA1, but probably not BRCA2, mutation carriers: n = 7,584, weighted hazard ratio (wHR) = 1.09 (95% CI 1.02–1.16), ptrend = 0.017; and n = 3,965, wHR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.94–1.16), ptrend = 0.43; respectively. Subsequently, studies of MCF10A apicobasal polarization revealed a central role for BRCA1 and RHAMM, together with AURKA and TPX2, in essential reorganization of microtubules. Mechanistically, reorganization is facilitated by BRCA1 and impaired by AURKA, which is regulated by negative feedback involving RHAMM and TPX2. Taken together, our data provide fundamental insight into apicobasal polarization through BRCA1 function, which may explain the expanded cell subsets and characteristic tumor type accompanying BRCA1 mutation, while also linking this process to sporadic breast cancer through perturbation of HMMR/RHAMM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosis over age 35. We took forward 96 SNPs for replication in another 5,986 BRCA1 carriers (2,974 individuals with breast cancer and 3,012 unaffected individuals). Five SNPs on 19p13 were associated with breast cancer risk (P(trend) = 2.3 × 10⁻⁹ to P(trend) = 3.9 × 10⁻⁷), two of which showed independent associations (rs8170, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.35; rs2363956 HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.89). Genotyping these SNPs in 6,800 population-based breast cancer cases and 6,613 controls identified a similar association with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (rs2363956 per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.92, P(trend) = 0.0003) and an association with estrogen receptor-positive disease in the opposite direction (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, P(trend) = 0.016). The five SNPs were also associated with triple-negative breast cancer in a separate study of 2,301 triple-negative cases and 3,949 controls (P(trend) = 1 × 10⁻⁷) to P(trend) = 8 × 10⁻⁵; rs2363956 per-allele OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P(trend) = 1.1 × 10⁻⁷
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1 is a tumour suppressor with pleiotropic actions. Germline mutations in BRCA1 are responsible for a large proportion of breast-ovarian cancer families. Several missense variants have been identified throughout the gene but because of lack of information about their impact on the function of BRCA1, predictive testing is not always informative. Classification of missense variants into deleterious/high risk or neutral/low clinical significance is essential to identify individuals at risk.
To investigate a panel of missense variants.
The panel was investigated in a comprehensive framework that included (1) a functional assay based on transcription activation; (2) segregation analysis and a method of using incomplete pedigree data to calculate the odds of causality; (3) a method based on interspecific sequence variation. It was shown that the transcriptional activation assay could be used as a test to characterise mutations in the carboxy-terminus region of BRCA1 encompassing residues 1396-1863. Thirteen missense variants (H1402Y, L1407P, H1421Y, S1512I, M1628T, M1628V, T1685I, G1706A, T1720A, A1752P, G1788V, V1809F, and W1837R) were specifically investigated.
While individual classification schemes for BRCA1 alleles still present limitations, a combination of several methods provides a more powerful way of identifying variants that are causally linked to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The framework presented here brings these variants nearer to clinical applicability.
Journal of Medical Genetics 03/2005; 42(2):138-46. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic testing for cancer predisposing mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has been of benefit to many individuals from breast and ovarian cancer-prone kindreds. However, a function has not been assigned to many of the domains that make up these complex proteins and hence, the significance of many sequence variants, including missense mutations, splice-site mutations, and in-frame deletions/insertions, remains unclear. We identified a putative splice site mutation (IVS6-2delA) in BRCA1 in a family attending a Familial Cancer Centre that had a significant history of both breast and ovarian cancer. This sequence variant was not novel but the exact effect on mRNA splicing and hence the biological impact of this sequence variation was unclear and therefore the finding was unable to be used in genetic counseling of the family. Via the construction of novel GFP-based expression fusion constructs, we demonstrated that this sequence variation prevented normal splicing of the BRCA1 transcript. By combining these data with an assessment of the histopathological features of the breast carcinomas in this family and mutation penetrance estimate we were able to conclude that this BRCA1 variant conveyed an increased risk of breast cancer.
Human Mutation 08/2003; 22(1):86-91. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiated mammary epithelium shows apicobasal polarity, and loss of tissue organization is an early hallmark of breast carcinogenesis. In BRCA1 mutation carriers, accumulation of stem and progenitor cells in normal breast tissue and increased risk of developing tumors of basal-like type suggest that BRCA1 regulates stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of BRCA1 in this process and its link to carcinogenesis remain unknown. Here we depict a molecular mechanism involving BRCA1 and RHAMM that regulates apicobasal polarity and, when perturbed, may increase risk of breast cancer. Starting from complementary genetic analyses across families and populations, we identified common genetic variation at the low-penetrance susceptibility HMMR locus (encoding for RHAMM) that modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA1, but probably not BRCA2, mutation carriers: n = 7,584, weighted hazard ratio ((w)HR) = 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16), p(trend) = 0.017; and n = 3,965, (w)HR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.94-1.16), p(trend) = 0.43; respectively. Subsequently, studies of MCF10A apicobasal polarization revealed a central role for BRCA1 and RHAMM, together with AURKA and TPX2, in essential reorganization of microtubules. Mechanistically, reorganization is facilitated by BRCA1 and impaired by AURKA, which is regulated by negative feedback involving RHAMM and TPX2. Taken together, our data provide fundamental insight into apicobasal polarization through BRCA1 function, which may explain the expanded cell subsets and characteristic tumor type accompanying BRCA1 mutation, while also linking this process to sporadic breast cancer through perturbation of HMMR/RHAMM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency
in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele
frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range
linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act
to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of
long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds
of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ
chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate
that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis
that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype
blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.
Human Genetics 130(5):685-699. · 4.63 Impact Factor