[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in intracellular calcium release and reuptake are responsible for decreased contractility in heart failure (HF). We have previously shown that cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are protein kinase A-hyperphosphorylated and depleted of the regulatory subunit calstabin-2 in HF. Moreover, similar alterations in skeletal muscle RyR have been linked to increased fatigability in HF. To determine whether restoration of calstabin binding to RyR may ameliorate cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction in HF, we treated WT and calstabin-2-/- mice subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) with JTV519. JTV519, a 1,4-benzothiazepine, is a member of a class of drugs known as calcium channel stabilizers, previously shown to increase calstabin binding to RyR. Echocardiography at 21 days after MI demonstrated a significant increase in ejection fraction in WT mice treated with JTV519 (45.8 +/- 5.1%) compared with placebo (31.1 +/- 3.1%; P < 0.05). Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed increased amounts of calstabin-2 bound to the RyR2 channel in JTV519-treated WT mice. However, JTV519 did not show any of these beneficial effects in calstabin-2-/- mice with MI. Additionally, JTV519 improved skeletal muscle fatigue in WT and calstabin-2-/- mice with HF by increasing the binding of calstabin-1 to RyR1. The observation that treatment with JTV519 improved cardiac function in WT but not calstabin-2-/- mice indicates that calstabin-2 binding to RyR2 is required for the beneficial effects in failing hearts. We conclude that JTV519 may provide a specific way to treat the cardiac and skeletal muscle myopathy in HF by increasing calstabin binding to RyR.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2005; 102(27):9607-12. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (FPVT) is characterized by exercise-induced arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death due to missense mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), an intracellular Ca2+ release channel required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart.
Three RyR2 missense mutations, P2328S, Q4201R, and V4653F, which occur in Finnish families, result in similar mortality rates of approximately 33% by age 35 years and a threshold heart rate of 130 bpm, above which exercise induces ventricular arrhythmias. Exercise activates the sympathetic nervous system, increasing cardiac performance as part of the fight-or-flight stress response. We simulated the effects of exercise on mutant RyR2 channels using protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. All 3 RyR2 mutations exhibited decreased binding of calstabin2 (FKBP12.6), a subunit that stabilizes the closed state of the channel. After PKA phosphorylation, FPVT-mutant RyR2 channels showed a significant gain-of-function defect consistent with leaky Ca2+ release channels and a significant rightward shift in the half-maximal inhibitory Mg2+ concentration (IC50). Treatment with the experimental drug JTV519 enhanced binding of calstabin2 to RyR2 and normalized channel function.
Sympathetic activation during exercise induces ventricular arrhythmias above a threshold heart rate in RyR2 mutation carriers. Simulating the downstream effects of the sympathetic activation by PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 channels containing these FPVT missense mutations produced a consistent gain-of-function defect. RyR2 function and calstabin2 depletion were rescued by JTV519, suggesting stabilization of the RyR2 channel complex may represent a molecular target for the treatment and prevention of exercise-induced arrhythmias and sudden death in these patients.