ABSTRACT: Liver injury is one of the most important adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy, leading to therapy changing or discontinuation. Data on liver injury in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy are limited in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of liver injury in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving non-nucleosides reverse transcriptase inhibitors-based antiretroviral therapy in China.
Seventy-five patients on antiretroviral therapy containing non-nucleosides reverse transcriptase inhibitors were retrospectively studied. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (with liver injury, n = 45) and group 2 (without liver injury, n = 30). The features of liver injury were analyzed. The sex, age, baseline CD4 counts, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, hepatotoxic drug use and nevirapine or efavirenz use were compared between two groups.
Forty-five patients (60.0%), 31 (68.9%) males and 14 (31.1%) females, aged 12 to 52 years (averaged (39 ± 9) years), experienced at least one episode of liver injury. Forty (53.3%) patients were co-infected with HBV and/or HCV, 42 (56%) patients had concomitant use of antituberculosis drugs or cotrimoxazole, 46 (61.3%) and 29 (38.7%) patients received regimen containing nevirapine and efavirenz, respectively. Grade 1 liver injuries were observed in 26 (57.8%) patients, grade 2 in 16 (35.6%), grade 3 in 2 (4.0%) and grade 4 in 1 (2.2%). Three (6.7%) patients discontinued highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to liver injury. In group 1, there were 29 (64.4%) patients co-infected with HBV and/or HCV, 32 (71.1%) patients received regimen containing nevirapine, and 30 (66.7%) patients had concomitant use of anti-tuberculosis drugs or cotrimoxazole, respectively, significantly higher than those in group 2 (11 (36.7%), 14 (46.7%) and 12 (40%), respectively; P = 0.018, 0.033, 0.023, respectively). The sex, age, baseline CD4 counts and disease stage were not factors associated with liver injury.
Liver injury associated with HAART containing non-nucleosides reverse transcriptase inhibitors was mild to moderate and those who were co-infected with HBV and/or HCV, had concomitant use of antituberculosis drugs or cotrimoxazole and received a regimen containing nevirapine were prone to liver injury while receiving HAART.
Chinese medical journal 12/2010; 123(24):3587-90. · 0.86 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To study the clinical features of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS).
The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 66 children with AIDS were retrospectively studied.
Of the 66 patients, 46 (69.7%) were male and 20 (30.3%) were female, with a mean age of 8.7 years (ranged 2-16 years). The mean age at diagnosis was 7.7 years (ranged 2-15 years). Vertical transmission as the route of infection was documented in 48 cases (72.7%). Fourteen children (21.2%) were infected through blood or blood products. The route of infection could not be identified in 4 cases (6.1%). Body weight loss was noted in 43 cases (65.2%), anemia in 42 cases (63.7%), fever in 40 cases (60.6%), fatigue in 38 cases (57.6%), rash in 31 cases (47.0%), chronic cough in 28 cases (12.1%), chronic diarrhea in 24 cases (36.4%), CNS involvement in 16 cases (24.2%), oral thrush in 13 cases (19.7%), and hepatosplenomegaly in 12 cases (18.2%). Body height of 30 cases (45.4%) and body weight of 26 cases (39.4%) ranked the lower level. The immune system was severely suppressed in 59 cases (89.4%) and moderately suppressed in 7 cases (10.6%).
Vertical transmission remained the most common route of pediatric HIV infection. There were various clinical manifestations in children with AIDS. The immune systems of the majority of children with this disorder were severely suppressed.
Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics 03/2009; 11(2):93-5.
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology 07/2008; 16(6):469-70.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the epidemiology of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in six provinces of China.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in six provinces with the highest HIV prevalence. Surveys on demographics and HIV-related questions (transmission modes, time of diagnosis, clinical stage, laboratory test) were distributed to clinicians in these provinces. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed on the completed surveys.
Survey results of 650 children [405 males and 245 females; average age: (7.9 +/- 3.2) years] were eligible for analysis. The interval between possible transmission and diagnosis was (7.1 +/- 3.2) years. The location distribution was as follows: 570 cases (87.7%) in Henan Province, 23 cases (3.5%) in Guangxi Province, 21 cases (3.2%) in Yunnan Province, 19 cases (2.9%) in Hubei Province, 10 cases (1.5%) in Anhui Province, and 7 cases (1.1%) in Shanxi Province. Transmission routes included mother-to-child transmission (75.1%), blood transfusion/ plasma donation (15.7 %), and injecting drug use (IDU, 0.5%). Former plasma donation (FPD) was the main transmission route in some provinces (Henan, Shanxi, Hubei, and Anhui), while IDU was the main transmission route in other provinces (Guangxi and Yunnan). The average age in the FPD provinces was significantly higher than that in IDU provinces [(8.1 +/- 3.2) vs. (5.4 +/- 2.2) years, P <0.001]. Among 178 patients in all six provinces who required treatment (on the basis of CD4 count or WHO staging), 133 (74.7%) did not receive treatment and 45 (25.3%) received antiretroviral therapy.
Mother-to-child transmission is the main transmission mode in pediatric patients. Efforts should be made to strengthen the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric HIV/AIDS patients.
Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 11/2006; 28(5):655-7.
ABSTRACT: To compare the immunological profiles of pediatric and adult patients with AIDS in China.
Totally 103 pediatric AIDS patients, 38 adult patients, 88 healthy children, and 72 healthy adults were enrolled. CD4 + T lymphocyte counts were determined by four-color flow cytometer and HIV-RNA levels were measured in EDTA plasma by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-16, IL-18, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-(SDF-1) alpha, SDF-1 beta, and macrophage stimulate protein (MSP) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) and soluble Fas (sFas) were measured to indicate the activation of immune system.
The mean CD4 + T cell count in pediatric patients with AIDS was significantly lower than in healthy children (P < 0.01), as between the adult AIDS patients and healthy adults (P < 0.01). The mean levels of these cytokines in pediatric patients were significantly higher than in healthy children (P < 0.01). The level of MSP in adult patients was significantly lower than in healthy adults and other cytokines were significantly higher (P < 0.01). The mean levels of these cytokines, except SDF1 alpha and beta 2-MG, were significantly higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients (P < 0.01).
Abnormal immune activation is induced in both pediatric and adult patients with HIV-1 infection. The level of immune activation is higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients.
Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 10/2006; 28(5):647-50.