[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The COX-2 inhibitors Rofecoxib (Rof) and Lumiracoxib (Lum) were evaluated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Administration of Rof and Lum significantly reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, which was associated with the inhibition of MOG 35-55 lymphocyte recall response, anti-MOG 35-55 T cell responses, and modulation of cytokines production. In vitro Rof and Lum inhibited primary T cells proliferation and modulated cytokine production. These findings highlight the fact that Rof and Lum likely prevents EAE by modulating Th1/Th2 response, and suggest its utility in the treatment of MS and other autoimmune diseases.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 06/2007; 186(1-2):94-103. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reversible S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase inhibitor DZ2002 [methyl 4-(adenin-9-yl)-2-hydroxybutanoate] suppresses antigen-induced-specific immune responses, particularly type 1 helper T cell (Th1)-type responses. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is thought to be a Th1 cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we examined the effects of DZ2002 on active EAE induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 in female C57BL/6 mice. Administration of DZ2002 (50 mg/kg/day i.p.) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, which was associated with the inhibition of MOG35-55-specific T cell proliferation and Th1-type cytokine production. In vitro studies also demonstrated that DZ2002 inhibited anti-CD3/28-induced naive T cell activation concomitant with the down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, CDK6, cyclin D3, and the up-regulation or protection of the CDK inhibitor p27. These findings highlight the fact that DZ2002 likely prevents EAE by suppressing T cell activation and suggest its utility in the treatment of MS and other Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2006; 319(2):799-808. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periplocoside E (PSE) was found to inhibit primary T-cell activation in our previous study. Now we examined the effect and mechanisms of PSE on the central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). C57BL/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glyco-protein (MOG) were treated with PSE following immunization and continued throughout the study. The effect on the progression of EAE and other relevant parameters were assessed. PSE reduced the incidence and severity of EAE. Spinal cord histopathology analysis showed that the therapeutic effect of PSE was associated with reduced mononuclear cell infiltration and CNS inflammation. As reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed, PSE decreased the CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD11b(+) cell infiltration. T cells from lymph nodes of MOG-immunized mice expressed enhanced levels of CCR5 and CXCR3 mRNA compared with T cells from normal mice. However, CCR5 and CXCR3 expressions were suppressed in T cells from PSE-treated mice. In vitro study also showed PSE inhibited interferon (IFN)-gamma-dependent CXCR3 expression in T cells through suppressing T-cell receptor (TCR) ligation-induced IFN-gamma production, whereas it inhibited interleukin (IL)-12-dependent CCR5 expression through suppressing IL-12 reactivity in TCR-triggered T cells. As a result, the initial influx of T cells into CNS was inhibited in PSE-treated mice. The consequent activation of macrophages/microglia cells was inhibited in spinal cord from PSE-treated mice as determination of chemokine expressions (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10). Consistently, the secondary influx of CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD11b(+) cells was decreased in spinal cords from PSE-treated mice. These findings suggest the potential therapeutic effect of PSE on multiple sclerosis.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2006; 318(3):1153-62. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-Hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) displays strong immunosuppressive activities both in vitro and in vivo in our previous studies. This study aims to investigate whether LLDT-8 has antiarthritic potential in a murine model of type II bovine collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) and to show the mechanism(s) of LLDT-8 action. DBA/1 mice were immunized with CII to induce arthritis and administered with LLDT-8. The severity of arthritis was evaluated according to the clinical score and joint damage. The effects of LLDT-8 on immune responses were determined by measurement of serum antibody levels, lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytokine assay, nitric oxide (NO) production, arginase activity assays, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of splenic Mac-1+ cells, as well as polymerase chain reaction analysis for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-related gene expression. We showed that LLDT-8 treatment significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA. The preventive and therapeutic effects of LLDT-8 are associated with 1) reduction of serum anti-CII immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgG2a, and IgG1 levels; 2) inhibition of CII-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-gamma and interleukin-2 production; 3) blockade of gene expressions in IFN-gamma signaling, including IFN-gamma production pathways [signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1, T-box transcription factor, interleukin 12Rbeta2, and STAT4] and IFN-gamma-induced chemokine transcription [macrophage inflammatory protein (Mip)-1alpha, Mip-1beta, regulated on activation normally T cell expressed and secreted, and inducible protein 10]; and 4) retardation of the abnormal increase of NO via IFN-gamma/STAT1/interferon regulatory factor 1/inducible nitric-oxide synthase pathway and arginase activity. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of chemokine receptors was also suppressed [including C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, CCR5, and C-X-C chemokine receptor 3]. In conclusion, our data suggest that the antiarthritic effect of LLDT-8 is closely related to the blockade of IFN-gamma signaling. LLDT-8 may have a therapeutic value in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2006; 318(1):35-44. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel triptolide derivative (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) has been shown to have potent immunosuppressive activities. Here LLDT-8 was evaluated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the model of multiple sclerosis (MS). LLDT-8 reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, which was associated with the inhibition of the MOG 35-55 lymphocyte recall response, anti-MOG 35-55 T cell responses, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma production. In vitro, LLDT-8 inhibited primary T cells proliferation, division, IL-2 and IFN-gamma production stimulated with anti-CD3/28. These findings highlight the fact that LLDT-8 prevents EAE by suppressing T cell proliferation and activation, with a potential for treatment of MS.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 07/2006; 175(1-2):142-51. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resident peritoneal macrophages (pMphi) are found deficient in T cell-stimulating capacity compared with the competent splenic macrophages (sMphi). Macrophages (Mphi)-derived nitric oxide (NO) and IL-12 have been shown to play crucial roles in the interaction between Mphi and T cells. To further understand differential functions between pMphi and sMphi, we focused on the production of NO and IL-12 from LPS plus IFN-gamma-activated Mphi. We demonstrated the differential expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-12 in pMphi and sMphi with LPS plus IFN-gamma stimulation. pMphi produced high level of NO but low level of IL-12, whereas sMphi produced high level of IL-12 but no NO. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there were no differences in IFN-gamma-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 activation and consequent interferon regulatory factor-1 and interferon consensus sequence-binding protein up-regulation between pMphi and sMphi. Likewise, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was activated by LPS with identical kinetics in both pMphi and sMphi. However, LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was prolonged in pMphi comparing with sMphi. Moreover, we demonstrated, using inhibitor selective for ERK cascade (PD98059), that the prolonged ERK activation contributed a positive signal for iNOS expression and a negative signal for IL-12p40 expression in resident pMphi. In addition, anti-IL-10-neutralizing antibody plus indomethacin could abrogate the inhibitory effects of endogenous IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 on the production of IL-12 by resident pMphi possibly through suppressing ERK activation. Taken together, profound difference in ERK activation may account for differential LPS plus IFN-gamma responsiveness between pMphi and sMphi. High production of NO and low production of IL-12 by pMphi may contribute to its deficiency in T cell-stimulating capacity.
International Immunology 07/2006; 18(6):981-90. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reversible S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase inhibitor methyl 4-(adenin-9-yl)-2-hydroxybutanoate (DZ2002) suppresses macrophage activation and function. The effects of DZ2002 on T cell function, however, are still unclear. Here, we examined whether DZ2002 alters type 1 helper T cell (Th1) and/or type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immune responses, and whether these effects are associated with both the inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase and intracellular elevation of endogenous AdoHcy. Male C57BL/6 mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) were treated with DZ2002 (1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day) after which lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and IgG responses to OVA were monitored. Administration of DZ2002 dose dependently suppressed OVA-specific lymphocyte proliferation and anti-OVA IgG production compared with controls. Interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma as well as anti-OVA IgG2a and IgG3, indicators of Th1 immune responses, were markedly decreased in mice treated with DZ2002, whereas IL-4 and anti-OVA IgG1, indicators of Th2 immune responses, were only mildly suppressed. AdoHcy hydrolase activity in spleens of DZ2002-treated mice was substantially blocked, and not surprisingly, AdoHcy levels were significantly elevated compared with controls. Finally, similar immunosuppressive effects were also observed in mice treated with AdoHcy. These data strongly indicate that DZ2002 suppresses antigen-induced specific immune responses, particularly Th1 responses, through inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase and elevation of endogenous AdoHcy.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 04/2006; 316(3):1229-37. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periploca sepium Bge, a traditional Chinese herb medicine, is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in China. Followed the bioactivity-guided isolation, the most potent immunosuppressive compound, periplocoside E (PSE), a pregnane glycoside, had been identified from P. sepium Bge. We investigated the immunosuppressive effects of PSE in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that PSE in a dose-dependent manner significantly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by concanavalin A and mixed lymphocyte culture reaction at no cytotoxic concentrations (<5 microM). Administration of PSE suppressed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and ovalbumin (OVA) induced antigen-specific immune responses in mice. In vivo treatment with PSE dose dependently suppressed OVA-induced proliferation and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma] production from splenocytes in vitro. Purified T cells from OVA-immunized mice with PSE treatment showed its low ability for activation by OVA plus normal antigen presenting cell stimulation again in vitro. Further studies showed PSE dose dependently inhibited anti-CD3-induced primary T cell proliferation, activation for IL-2Ralpha (CD25) expression, and cytokine (IFN-gamma and IL-2) production also at the transcriptional level. PSE was highly specific and significantly inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase, whereas activation of p38 was not affected in T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. These results demonstrated that PSE is an immunosuppressive compound in P. sepium Bge, which directly inhibits T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. This study provided evidence to understand the therapeutic effects of P. sepium Bge and indicated that this herb is appropriate for treatment of T cell-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2006; 316(2):662-9. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes depend on transmethylation reactions for efficient activation and function. These reactions are primarily catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, which convert S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine is then hydrolyzed by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase to prevent feedback inhibition of transmethylation reactions. By impeding S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, a build-up of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine occurs, and most intracellular transmethylation reactions cease. Thus, a nontoxic inhibitor of this enzyme might be a useful immunosuppressive therapeutic agent. We identified a potent reversible type III inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, DZ2002 [methyl 4-(adenin-9-yl)-2-hydroxybutanoate], and determined its cytotoxic and immunologic effects. We demonstrated that DZ2002 blocked S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase more effectively than a type I inhibitor, but cytotoxicity from DZ2002 was greatly reduced. Although DZ2002 did not prevent concanavalin A-induced T cell proliferation or interleukin (IL)-2 production, it significantly reduced both a mixed lymphocyte reaction and IL-12 production from in vitro-stimulated splenocytes. In addition, levels of CD80 and CD86 on human monocytic THP-1 cells were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of 0.1 to 10 microM DZ2002, and decreases were also seen in IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from both mouse thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 cells. In vivo, DZ2002 significantly suppressed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction as well as antibody secretion. We conclude that DZ2002's immunosuppressive effects are likely not solely attributed to T cell inhibition but also to the obstruction of macrophage activation and function through reductions in cytokine output and/or T cell costimulation. These data suggest an important dual role for the S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase in both macrophage and T cell function.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2005; 313(2):705-11. · 3.89 Impact Factor