[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to their capability of modifying chromatin structure and thereby regulating gene transcription, histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been reported to play important roles in osteogenesis and considered a promising potential therapeutic target for bone diseases, including osteoporosis. We showed that the novel marine-derived HDAC inhibitor largazole exhibits in vitro and in vivo osteogenic activity. Largazole significantly induced the expression of ALP and OPN. The osteogenic activity of largazole was mediated through the increased expression of Runx2 and BMPs. Importantly, largazole showed in vivo bone-forming efficacy in the mouse calvarial bone formation assay and the rabbit calvarial bone fracture healing model. The dual action of largazole to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption would be a useful feature in drug development for bone-related disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis represent a significant health concern throughout much of the developing world. In mycobacteria and other pathogenic bacteria, an important virulence factor is the ability of the bacterium to obtain iron from its host. One means of obtaining iron is through the use of siderophores. Brasilibactin A is a membrane bound siderophore produced by Nocardia brasiliensis with structural similarity to the mycobactin class of siderophore in mycobacteria. A characterization of the protonation constants and Fe(III) affinity of a water soluble Brasilibactin A analog (Bbtan) has been performed. Using protonation constants and competition with EDTA, the stability constant of the 1 : 1 Fe(III)-Bbtan complex was found to be log β(110) = 26.96. The pFe of Bbtan is 22.73, somewhat low for a proposed siderophore molecule. The redox potential of the Fe-Bbtan complex was found to be -300 mV vs. NHE, very high for an iron-siderophore complex. The combination of relatively low complex stability and ease of iron reduction may play a crucial role in the mechanism of mycobactin siderophore-mediated iron uptake in mycobacteria and related organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both 2,6-cis- and 2,6-trans-piperidines were prepared from common substrates through organocatalytic aza-Michael reactions promoted by the gem-disubstituent effect in conjunction with dithiane coupling reactions. The organocatalytic aza-Michael reaction enabled a facile synthesis of (+)-myrtine and (-)-epimyrtine from a common substrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are validated targets for anticancer therapy as attested by the approval of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and romidepsin (FK228) for treating cutaneous T cell lymphoma. We recently described the bioassay-guided isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and target identification of largazole, a marine-derived antiproliferative natural product that is a prodrug that releases a potent HDAC inhibitor, largazole thiol. Here, we characterize the anticancer activity of largazole by using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Screening against the National Cancer Institute's 60 cell lines revealed that largazole is particularly active against several colon cancer cell types. Consequently, we tested largazole, along with several synthetic analogs, for HDAC inhibition in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. Enzyme inhibition strongly correlated with the growth inhibitory effects, and differential activity of largazole analogs was rationalized by molecular docking to an HDAC1 homology model. Comparative genomewide transcript profiling revealed a close overlap of genes that are regulated by largazole, FK228, and SAHA. Several of these genes can be related to largazole's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Stability studies suggested reasonable bioavailability of the active species, largazole thiol. We established that largazole inhibits HDACs in tumor tissue in vivo by using a human HCT116 xenograft mouse model. Largazole strongly stimulated histone hyperacetylation in the tumor, showed efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth, and induced apoptosis in the tumor. This effect probably is mediated by the modulation of levels of cell cycle regulators, antagonism of the AKT pathway through insulin receptor substrate 1 down-regulation, and reduction of epidermal growth factor receptor levels.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 11/2010; 335(2):351-61. DOI:10.1124/jpet.110.172387 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize largazole's structural requirements for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory and antiproliferative activities, a series of analogues with modifications to the side chain or 16-membered macrocycle were prepared and biologically evaluated. Structure-activity relationships suggested that the four-atom linker between the macrocycle and octanoyl group in the side chain and the (S)-configuration at the C17 position are critical to repression of HDAC activity. However, the valine residue in the macrocycle can be replaced with alanine without significant loss of activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Full details of the concise and convergent synthesis (eight steps, 19% overall yield), its extension to the preparation of a series of key analogues, and the molecular target and pharmacophore of largazole are described. Central to the synthesis of largazole is a macrocyclization reaction for formation of the strained 16-membered depsipeptide core followed by an olefin cross-metathesis reaction for installation of the thioester. The biological evaluation of largazole and its key analogues, including an acetyl analogue, a thiol analogue, and a hydroxyl analogue, suggested that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are molecular targets of largazole and largazole is a class I HDAC inhibitor. In addition, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the thiol group is the pharmacophore of the natural product. Largazole's HDAC inhibitory activity correlates with its antiproliferative activity.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2008; 130(26):8455-9. DOI:10.1021/ja8013727 · 12.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A synthesis of brasilibactin A, a cytotoxic siderophore from the actinomycete of Nocardia brasiliensis, and three unnatural diastereomers of the natural product is described. Four possible diastereomers of the β-hydroxy acid fragment were prepared via asymmetric aldol reactions and used to synthesize brasilibactin A and its diastereomers. Careful analysis of 1H NMR data confirmed that brasilibactin A possesses the 17S,18R absolute stereochemistry.