[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is an important member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that copes with various endobiotic and xenobiotic stimuli, such as carcinogens by regulating an array of environmental response genes. Low PXR expression has been shown to promote tumor initiation and metastasis. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PXR could alter lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese by affecting the function or expression of PXR. We genotyped three putatively functional SNPs of PXR (i.e., rs3814055C>T, rs3732360C>T, and rs3814058C>T) and analyzed their associations with lung cancer risk in a two-stage case-control study with a total of 1559 lung cancer cases and 1679 controls in the southern and eastern Chinese population. We found that in comparison to the rs3814058CC common genotype, the rs3814058T variants (TC/TT) which is located in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of PXR conferred a consistently increased risk of lung cancer in both the southern Chinese (odd ratios (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.49) and the eastern Chinese (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75). The variants also significantly interacted with smoking on increasing cancer risk (p = 0.023). Moreover, lung cancer tissues with the rs3814058T variants showed significantly lower PXR expression than those with rs3814058CC genotype in the smokers (p = 0.041). These results suggested that the rs3814058C>T polymorphism of PXR interacts with smoking on increasing lung cancer risk in Chinese smokers, which might be a functional genetic biomarker for lung cancer.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10/2014; 15(10):17457-17468. DOI:10.3390/ijms151017457 · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) is recognized as oncogenic and simulative role on tumorgenesis by virtue of abnormal expression in cancer including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We hypothesized that the copy number variation-30450 (CNV-30450), which duplicates the MAPKAPK2 promoter, may affect MAPKAPK2 expression and be associated with NPC risk. In two independent case-control panels of southern and eastern Chinese with a total of 1590 NPC patients and 1979 cancer-free controls, we investigated the association between CNV-30450 and NPC risk by genotyping the CNV-30450 with the Taqman assay, and tested its biological effect. Consistent findings were observed in the two populations, that the increased copy number of CNV-30450 was associated with increased risk of NPC (3/4-copy vs. 2-copy: OR =1.28, 95%CI=1.10-1.49), in which lies a biological mechanism that the adverse genotypes enhanced the promoter activity of MAPKAPK2 and elevated MAPKAPK2 expression. Moreover, the CNV-30450 adverse genotypes significantly interacted with EBV infection on increasing NPC risk (P =0.035), and the genotype-phenotype was only significant in EBV positive cases (P =0.037), but not in EBV negative ones (P =0.366). These data suggest that the functional CNV-30450 in the MAPKAPK2 promoter elevates the NPC risk with a modulation by EBV infection, which may be an indicator of susceptibility to NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 (MEK5)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-5 (ERK5) pathway plays a pro-oncogenic role in tumourigenesis by anticell apoptosis, promoting cell proliferation and differentiation in response to extracellular stimuli. As overexpressed MEK5/ERK5 is involved in the development of lung cancer, we hypothesised that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MEK5 and ERK5 genes may influence gene expression and thus be associated with lung cancer risk. Five putative functional polymorphisms (rs3743353T>C, rs7172582C>T and rs2278076A>G of MEK5 and rs3866958G>T and rs2233083C>T of ERK5) were genotyped in two independent case-control studies with a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 controls in southern and eastern Chinese population. We found the rs3866958G>T of ERK5 was significantly associated with lung cancer risk, while other SNPs were not. Compared with the rs3866958TG/TT genotypes, the GG genotype conferred an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.51, P = 5.0×10(-4)), and this effect was more pronounced in smokers, accompanying with a significant interaction with smoking (P interaction = 0.013). The GG genotype also had significant higher mRNA levels of ERK5 in lung cancer tissues than TG/TT genotypes (P = 1.0×10(-4)); the luciferase reporter with the G allele showed significant higher transcription activities than the T allele, especially after the treatment with tobacco extract in vitro. Our data indicated that the functional polymorphism rs3866958G>T in ERK5 was associated with an increased lung cancer risk in smokers by virtue of the positive interaction with smoking on promoting the ERK5 expression, which might be a valuable indicator for predicting lung cancer risk in smokers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human proto-oncogene c-Jun and c-Fos assemble the activator protein-1 complex which is a crucial transcription factor responding to environmental factors and promotes tumorgenesis. We hypothesized that genetic variants in these two genes may alter the carriers' susceptibility to lung cancer. In two independent case-control studies, we genotyped three putative functional polymorphisms (-1318T>G and -673T>C of c-Jun; -60C>T of c-Fos) in southern Chinese and then validated the association in eastern Chinese. We found that compared to -1318TT genotype, the -1318GT/GG variant genotypes had an increased lung cancer risk (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.26-1.69), and the -673CC genotype had an increased lung cancer risk compared to -673TT/CT genotypes (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.17-1.56) in the total 1,559 cases versus 1,679 controls. After combining these two loci, the number of the risk genotypes was associated with increased cancer risk in a dose-response manner (ptrend=2.21×10(-11)); moreover, the risk genotypes interacted with smoking or drinking status on increasing cancer risk (p values of interaction were 0.009 and 0.007, respectively). Further, we found that those with -1318GT/GG genotypes, -673CC genotypes or both genotypes in c-Jun had higher mRNA and protein expression levels in vivo, and those variants had higher transcription activities in reporter genes in vitro, especially under the stimuli with tobacco extract or alcohol mixture as luciferase assay shown. However, for -60C>T of c-Fos, no significant association was observed for lung cancer risk. Our data suggested that the genetic variants in c-Jun (-1318T>G and -673T>C) increase the carriers' susceptibility to lung cancer via interaction with smoking or drinking on increasing the c-Jun's expression.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2012; 131(5):E744-58. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27407 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) may promote cancer development and progression by inducing tumorigenesis and drug resistance. To assess whether the copy-number variation g.CNV-30450 located in the MAPKAPK2 promoter has any effect on lung cancer risk or prognosis, we investigated the association between g.CNV-30450 and cancer risk in three independent case-control studies of 2,332 individuals with lung cancer and 2,457 controls and the effects of g.CNV-30450 on cancer prognosis in 1,137 individuals with lung cancer with survival data in southern and eastern Chinese populations. We found that those subjects who had four copies of g.CNV-30450 had an increased cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-2.35) and a worse prognosis for individuals with lung cancer (with a median survival time of only 9 months) (hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.22-1.78) compared with those with two or three copies (with a median survival time of 14 months). Meanwhile, four copies of g.CNV-30450 significantly increased MAPKAPK2 expression, both in vitro and in vivo, compared with two or three copies. Our study establishes a robust association between the functional g.CNV-30450 in MAPKAPK2 and risk as well as prognosis of lung cancer, and it presents this functional copy-number variation as a potential biomarker for susceptibility to and prognosis for lung cancer.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2012; 91(2):384-90. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.07.003 · 10.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic variations in NBS1 gene have been reported to be associated with cancer risk. The polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of NBS1 might affect gene's function and thus contribute to cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that these polymorphisms of NBS1 are associated with the lung cancer risk. In two independent case-control studies conducted in Southern and Eastern Chinese, we genotyped three tagSNPs (rs14448, rs13312986 and rs2735383) in Southern Chinese and then validated the discovered association in Eastern Chinese. No significant association was observed for rs13312986 and rs14448; we only found that the rs2735383CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer under a recessive genetic model in the total 1559 cases versus 1679 controls (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.66, P = 0.0001) when compared with GG or GC genotypes; the rs2735383CC genotype carriers had lower messenger RNA and protein expression levels in tumor tissues than those of other genotypes as quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot shown. Luciferase assay revealed that the rs2735383C allele had a lower transcription activity than G allele, and the hsa-miR-629 but not hsa-miR-499-5P had effect on modulation of NBS1 gene in vitro. We further observed that the X-ray radiation induced more chromatid breaks in lymphocyte cells from the carriers of rs2735383CC homozygote than those from the subjects with other genotypes (P = 0.0008). Our data suggested that the rs2735383G>C variation contributes to an increased risk of lung cancer by diminishing gene's expression through binding of microRNA-629 to the polymorphic site in the 3'-UTR of NBS1 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), PIN1, has been found to be a critical catalyst that involves in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. Recently, several putative functional polymorphisms of the PIN1 gene have been identified to be associated with cancer risk. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that two common polymorphisms, c.-842G>C (rs2233678) and c.-667C>T (rs2233679), in the PIN1 promoter are associated with risk of lung cancer. In two independent case-control studies of 1,559 lung cancer cases and 1,679 controls conducted in Southern and Eastern Chinese population, we found that compared with the most common c.-842GG genotype, the carriers of c.-842C variant genotypes (GC + CC) had a decreased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-0.78, p = 1.13 × 10(-5) ). Although no association was observed between the c.-667C>T polymorphism and cancer risk, we found that the haplotype "C-C" had a greater protective effect (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.23-0.67, p = 5.03 × 10(-4) ). The stratification analysis showed that the protective role of c.-842C variants was more pronounced in current smokers (p = 4.45 × 10(-5) ), especially in male smokers (p = 6.71 × 10(-6) ) and in those who smoked more than 20 pack-years (p = 2.30 × 10(-5) ) and the c.-842C variant genotypes interacted with smoking status (P(interaction) = 0.019) or pack-years smoked (P(interaction) = 0.008) on reducing cancer risk. Further functional assay revealed that the c.-842C variant allele had a lower transcription activity in luciferase assay and a lower DNA-binding ability with nuclear proteins, and low transcription activity in western blot assay. In conclusions, our data suggest that functional c.-842C variants and haplotype "C-C" in the PIN1 promoter contribute to decreased risk of lung cancer by diminishing the promoter activity, which may be susceptibility biomarkers for lung cancer.
Human Mutation 11/2011; 32(11):1299-308. DOI:10.1002/humu.21574 · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) is a novel identified tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and facilitates cell apoptosis. One genetic variant in DAB2IP gene was reported to be associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer recently. Since DAB2IP involves in the development of lung cancer and low expression of DAB2IP are observed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that the variations in DAB2IP gene can increase the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. In a case-control study of 1056 lung cancer cases and 1056 sex and age frequency-matched cancer-free controls, we investigated the association between two common polymorphisms in DAB2IP gene (-1420T>G, rs7042542; 97906C>A, rs1571801) and the risk of lung cancer. We found that compared with the 97906CC genotypes, carriers of variant genotypes (97906AC+AA) had a significant increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.04-1.70, P = 0.023) and the number of variant (risk) allele worked in a dose-response manner (P(trend) = 0.0158). Further stratification analysis showed that the risk association was more pronounced in subjects aged less than 60 years old, males, non-smokers, non-drinkers, overweight groups and in those with family cancer history in first or second-degree relatives, and the 97906A interacted with overweight on lung cancer risk. We further found the number of risk alleles (97906A allele) were negatively correlated with early diagnosis age of lung cancer in male patients (P = 0.003). However, no significant association was observed on the -1420T>G polymorphism. Our data suggested that the 97906A variant genotypes are associated with the increased risk and early onset of lung cancer, particularly in males.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e26944. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026944 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a tumor-associated antigen and a surface marker of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) plays an important role in not only cell adhesion, morphogenesis, metastases but also carcinogenesis. A non-synonymous C/T polymorphism (rs1126497) in exon3 of EpCAM causes a transition of 115 amino acid from Met to Thr. Another polymorphism (A/G, rs1421) in the 3'UTR causes loss of has-miR-1183 binding. A multiple independent case-control analysis was performed to assess the association between EpCAM genotypes and breast cancer risk. We observed that the variant EpCAM genotype (rs1126497 CT, and TT) was associated with substantially increased risk of breast cancer. Genotyping a total of 1643 individuals with breast cancer and 1818 control subjects in Eastern and Southern Chinese populations showed that rs1126497 CT + TT genotype had an odd ratio of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.57) for developing breast cancer compared with CC genotype. The allele T increases the risk of breast cancer in a dose-dependent response manner (P (trend) < 0.001). Moreover, compared to breast cancer patients carrying the CC genotype, the EpCAM SNP rs1126497 CT or TT carrier was significantly associated with early breast cancer onset (P = 0.0023). However, no significant difference was found in genotype frequencies at the rs1421 A/G site between cases and controls. These findings suggest that M115T polymorphism in EpCAM may be a genetic modifier for developing breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2011; 126(2):487-95. DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-1094-6 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) is a critical mediator of stress-activated protein kinase signals that regulate apoptosis, inflammations and tumorigenesis. Several polymorphisms have been identified in the MKK4 gene. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the MKK4 promoter may alter its expression and thus cancer risk. In a case-control study of 1056 lung cancer cases and 1056 sex and age frequency-matched cancer-free controls, we genotyped two common polymorphisms in the MKK4 promoter region (-1304T>G and -1044A>T) with the Taqman assay, and we found that compared with the most common -1304TT genotype, carriers of -1304G variant genotypes had a decreased risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.90 for TG, and OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.41-0.94 for GG] in an allele dose-response manner (adjusted P(trend) = 0.0005). Further stratification analysis showed that the protective role of the -1304G variant allele was more evident in low or normal body mass index (BMI) but restrained in the overweighters and that the -1304G variant genotypes interacted with BMI in reducing cancer risk (adjusted P(interaction) = 0.003). Moreover, the luciferase assay showed that the G allele in the promoter significantly increased the transcription activity of the MKK4 gene in vitro and that the MKK4 protein expression levels of the G variant carriers was significantly higher in tumor tissues than those of the -1304TT genotype. However, no significant association was observed between the -1044A>T polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. Our data suggest that the functional -1304G variant in the MKK4 promoter contributes to a decreased risk of lung cancer by increasing the promoter activity and that the G variant may be a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer.