[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with type 1 diabetes develop renal disease despite moderately good metabolic control, suggesting other risk factors may play a role. Recent evidence suggests that Haptoglobin (HP) 2-2 genotype, which codes for a protein with reduced antioxidant activity, may predict renal function decline in type 1 diabetes. We examined this hypothesis in 1303 Caucasian participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Control (DCCT/EDIC) study. HP genotype was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and albumin excretion based on timed urine samples. Participants were followed for a mean of 22 years. HP genotype was significantly associated with the development of sustained eGFR< 60ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and with end stage renal disease (ESRD) with HP2-2 having greater risk than HP2-1 and 1-1. No association was seen with albuminuria. Though there was no treatment group interaction, the associations were only significant in the conventional treatment group where events rates were much higher. We conclude that the HP genotype is significantly associated with the development of reduced GFR and ESRD in the DCCT/EDIC study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease has been linked with genotypes for haptoglobin (Hp) which modulates extracorpuscular hemoglobin. We hypothesized that the Hp genotype would predict progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis.
CAC was measured three times in six years among 436 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 526 control subjects participating in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study. Hp typing was performed on plasma samples by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
The Hp 2-2 genotype predicted development of significant CAC only in subjects with diabetes who were free of CAC at baseline (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.56, p = 0.03), compared to those without the Hp 2-2 genotype, controlling for age, sex, blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol. Hp 2 appeared to have an allele-dose effect on development of CAC. Hp genotype did not predict CAC progression in individuals without diabetes.
Hp genotype may aid prediction of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin E provides cardiovascular protection to individuals with diabetes and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype but appears to increase cardiovascular risk in individuals with diabetes and the haptoglobin 2-1 genotype. We have previously demonstrated that the haptoglobin protein is associated with HDL and that HDL function and its oxidative modification are haptoglobin genotype dependent. We set out to test the hypothesis that the pharmacogenetic interaction between the haptoglobin genotype on cardiovascular risk might be secondary to a parallel interaction between the haptoglobin genotype and vitamin E on HDL function.
Fifty-nine individuals with diabetes and the haptoglobin 2-1 or 2-2 genotypes were studied in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover design. Participants were treated with either vitamin E (400IU) or placebo for 3 months and crossed over for an equivalent duration. Serum was collected at baseline and after the completion of each treatment. HDL functionality as well as HDL associated markers of oxidation and inflammation were measured after each interval in HDL purified from the cohort.
Compared to placebo, vitamin E significantly increased HDL function in haptoglobin 2-2 but significantly decreased HDL function in haptoglobin 2-1. This pharmacogenetic interaction was paralleled by similar non-significant trends in HDL associated lipid peroxides, glutathione peroxidase, and inflammatory cargo.
There exists a pharmacogenetic interaction between the haptoglobin genotype and vitamin E on HDL function (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01113671).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haptoglobin is an abundant hemoglobin-binding protein present in the plasma. The function of haptoglobin is primarily to determine the fate of hemoglobin released from red blood cells after either intravascular or extravascular hemolysis. There are two common alleles at the Hp genetic locus denoted 1 and 2. There are functional differences between the Hp 1 and Hp 2 protein products in protecting against hemoglobin-driven oxidative stress that appear to have important clinical significance. In particular, individuals with the Hp 2-2 genotype and diabetes mellitus appear to be at significantly higher risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. A pharmacogenomic strategy of administering high dose antioxidants specifically to Hp 2-2 DM individuals may be clinically effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials of vitamin E have failed to demonstrate a decrease in cardiovascular events. However, these studies did not address possible benefit to subgroups with increased oxidative stress. Haptoglobin (Hp), a major antioxidant protein, is a determinant of cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The Hp gene is polymorphic with 2 common alleles, 1 and 2. The Hp 2 allelic protein product provides inferior antioxidant protection compared with the Hp 1 allelic product. We sought to test the hypothesis that vitamin E could reduce cardiovascular events in DM individuals with the Hp 2-2 genotype, a subgroup that comprises 2% to 3% of the general population.
1434 DM individuals > or = 55 years of age with the Hp 2-2 genotype were randomized to vitamin E (400 U/d) or placebo. The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. At the first evaluation of events, 18 months after initiating the study, the primary outcome was significantly reduced in individuals receiving vitamin E (2.2%) compared with placebo (4.7%; P=0.01) and led to early termination of the study.
Vitamin E supplementation appears to reduce cardiovascular events in individuals with DM and the Hp 2-2 genotype (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00220831).