[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KIT receptor tyrosine kinase has important roles in hematopoiesis. We have recently produced a mouse model for imatinib resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) carrying the Kit(V558Δ) and Kit(T669I) (human KIT(T670I) ) mutations found in imatinib-resistant GIST. The Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) mice developed microcytic erythrocytosis with an increase in erythroid progenitor numbers, a phenotype previously seen only in mouse models of polycythemia vera (PV) with alterations in Epo or Jak2. Significantly, the increased hematocrit observed in Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) mice normalized upon splenectomy. In accordance with increased erythroid progenitors, myeloerythroid progenitor numbers were also elevated in the Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) mice. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers in the bone marrow (BM) of Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) mice were unchanged in comparison to wild-type mice. However, increased HSC numbers were observed in fetal livers and the spleen and peripheral blood of adult Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) mice. Importantly, HSC from Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) BM had a competitive advantage over wild-type HSC. In response to 5-fluorouracil treatment elevated numbers of dividing Lin(-) Sca(+) cells were found in the Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) BM compared to wild-type. Our study demonstrates that signaling from the Kit(V558Δ;T669I/+) receptor has important consequences in hematopoiesis enhancing HSC self-renewal and resulting in increased erythropoiesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Imatinib inhibits Kit and is front-line therapy for GIST. However, imatinib most often elicits a partial response or stable disease, and most GIST patients who initially respond to imatinib eventually acquire resistance. Thus, improved treatment strategies for GIST are needed. We investigated the role of Src family kinases (SFK) in tumorigenesis in a mouse model of human GIST. The SFKs Src and Lyn were active in GIST, and surprisingly, imatinib treatment stimulated their phosphorylation/activation. We show that integrin signaling activates focal adhesion kinase and, consequently, SFKs in GIST and that imatinib enhances integrin signaling, implying a role for the extracellular matrix and integrin signaling in tumor maintenance and imatinib resistance. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of SFKs and Kit, inhibited SFK and focal adhesion kinase activation in GIST but also inhibited Kit and Kit-dependent downstream signaling pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. Whereas dasatinib and imatinib alone both produced a minimal histopathologic response, combination therapy improved their efficacy, leading to increased necrosis in GIST. These results highlight the importance of SFK and STAT signaling in GIST and suggest that the clinical efficacy of imatinib may be limited by the stimulation of integrin signaling.
Molecular Cancer Research 09/2010; 8(9):1271-83. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kit receptor-activating mutations are critical in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We investigated mechanisms of oncogenic Kit signaling and the consequences of therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of human GIST. Treatment of GIST mice with imatinib decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the tumor. Analysis of tumor tissue from imatinib-treated mice showed diminished phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling suggesting that oncogenic Kit signaling critically contributes to the translational response in GIST. Treatment with RAD001 (everolimus), an mTOR inhibitor, diminished the translational response and cell proliferation in tumor lesions, pointing to mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic approach for imatinib-resistant GIST. Analysis of RNA expression profiles in GIST lesions with and without imatinib treatment showed changes in expression of IFN-inducible genes and cell cycle regulators. These results convincingly show that KitV558Delta/+ mice represent a unique faithful mouse model of human familial GIST, and they demonstrate the utility of these mice for preclinical investigations and to elucidate oncogenic signaling mechanisms by using genetic approaches and targeted pharmacological intervention.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2006; 103(34):12843-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor