[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basal and adaptive β-cell regeneration capacity declines with old age, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is considered a multifunctional enzyme and transcription factor that regulates pancreatic β-cell death, regeneration and insulin secretion. We analyzed the capacity of β-cell regeneration in 2-month-old (young) and 12-month-old (old) wild-type (WT) and PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice before and after low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), a stimulus of β-cell regeneration and the underlying mechanism. Before STZ administration, young WT and PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice showed similar β-cell proliferation. By contrast, old WT but not old PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice showed severely restricted β-cell proliferation. In further assessment of the adaptive β-cell regeneration capacity with age, we observed that with a single low dose of STZ, young WT and PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice showed a similar increase in β-cell proliferation, with few changes in old WT mice. Surprisingly, adaptive β-cell proliferation capacity was significantly higher in old PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice than old WT mice after STZ administration. The ability of β-cell mass to expand was associated with increased levels of the regenerating (Reg) genes RegI and RegII but not RegIV. Therefore, PARP-1 is a key regulator in β-cell regeneration with advancing age in mice.
Molecular Medicine 03/2012; 18(1):816-24. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia significantly stimulates pancreatic islet endothelial cell apoptosis; however, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, treating pancreatic islet endothelial (MS-1) cells with high glucose (30mmol/l) but not mannitol significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells as compared with a physiological glucose concentration (5.5mmol/l). Hyperglycemia significantly stimulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), relevant to MS-1 cell apoptosis. Moreover, induced reactive nitrogen species (RNS) significantly increased the expression of bax, cleaved caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) via JNK activation, but the expression of bcl-2 was not altered. Furthermore, SP600125 (a specific inhibitor of JNK) and 1400W (a specific inhibitor of iNOS) significantly attenuated cell apoptosis induced by high glucose. Therefore, hyperglycemia triggers MS-1 cell apoptosis by activating an intrinsic-dependent apoptotic pathway via RNS-mediated JNK activation.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1813(6):1211-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing studies suggest that the activity of GLP-1 might be of significant importance in the development of type 2 diabetes beyond its serum glucose-lowering effects. However, to date, the anti-apoptosis mechanism by which GLP-1 acts on MILE SVEN 1 (MS-1) cells has not been fully explored with regard to the intracellular signaling pathway. Increasing evidence shows that apoptosis of islet microvascular endothelial cells (IMECs) participates in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We wondered whether GLP-1 exerts its anti-apoptosis effects by inactivating the PARP-1/iNOS/NO pathway in oxidized low-density-lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis in mouse IMECs (MS-1 cells), which may linked to GLP-1R/cAMP levels. MTT assay revealed that 2-h pre-incubation with GLP-1 markedly restored the oxLDL-induced loss of MS-1 viability in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in intracellular nitric oxide (NO) activity. Moreover, GLP-1 suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the activities of endogenous antioxidants, and decreased the level of NO. Pre-incubating MS-1 cells with GLP-1 reduced cell apoptosis. Finally, GLP-1 could efficiently prevent the upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1/nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase protein. Simultaneously, the expression of GLP-1 receptor and the level of cAMP was consistent with the administration of GLP-1. Our findings suggest that GLP-1 can effectively protect MS-1 cells against oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be important in preventing the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 03/2011; 339(1-2):25-33. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy and safety of (131)I therapy on hyperthyroidism in adolescents, middle-aged people, and the elderly.
940 patients with hyperthyroidism, 106 aged < 25 (Group A, group of young people), 768 aged 25 - 60 (Group B, middle-aged group), and 66 aged > 60 (Group C, group of the elderly), underwent (131)I therapy and were followed up for 2 years to evaluate the efficacy and safety.
Forty-six patients in group A (43.4%) became euthyroid, 34(32.1%) turned better, 24 (22.6%) suffered from hypothyroidism, and 2 (1.9%) remained un-changed, with a general effective rate of 98.11% (104/106). 346 patients (45.1%) in Group B became euthyroid, 260 (33.9%) turned better, 140 (18.2%) suffered from hypothyroidism, and 22 (2.9%) remained un-changed, with a general effective rate of 97.14% (746/768). And 28 patients (42.4%)in Group C became euthyroid, 24 (36.4%) turned better, 10 (15.15%) suffered from hypothyroidism, and 4 (6.1%) remained unchanged, with a general effective rate of 93.93% (62/66). There were not significant differences in the recovery rate, improvement rate, hypothyroidism rat, and ineffective rate among the 3 groups (all P > 0.05).
There are no significant differences in the efficacy and safety of (131)I therapy in hyperthyroidism on the patients of different ages, including adolescent, adult and elder persons. (131)I therapy is safe and effective for adolescents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The delivery of glucose from the blood to the brain involves its passage across the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT(1)), and then across the neural cell membranes, which is mediated by GLUT(3). This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic influence of hyperglycemia on the expression of these GLUTs by measuring their expression in the brain at different blood glucose levels in a rat model of diabetes. This might help to determine the proper blood glucose threshold level in the treatment of diabetic apoplexy.
Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in 30 rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic group without blood glucose control (group DM1), diabetic rats treated with low dose insulin (group DM2), and diabetic rats treated with high dose insulin (group DM3). The mRNA and protein levels of GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
Compared with normal control rats, the GLUT(1) mRNA was reduced by 46.08%, 29.80%, 19.22% (P < 0.01) in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively; and the GLUT(3) mRNA was reduced by 75.00%, 46.75%, and 17.89% (P < 0.01) in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively. The abundance of GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) proteins had negative correlation with the blood glucose level (P < 0.01). The density of microvessels in the brain of diabetic rats did not change significantly compared with normal rats.
Chronic hyperglycemia downregulates GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the rat brain, which is not due to the decrease of the density of microvessels. The downregulation of GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) expression might be the adaptive reaction of the body to prevent excessive glucose entering the cell that may lead to cell damage.
Chinese medical journal 10/2007; 120(19):1704-9. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), would provide a potentially unlimited source of islet cells for transplantation and alleviate the major limitations of availability and allogeneic rejection. Therefore, the utilization of stem cells is becoming the most promising therapy for diabetes mellitus (DM). Here, we studied the differentiation capacity of the diabetic patient's bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and tested the feasibility of using MSCs for beta-cell replacement.
Bone marrow-derived MSCs were obtained from 10 DM patients (5 type 1 DM and 5 type 2 DM) and induced to IPCs under a three-stage protocol. Representative cell surface antigen expression profiles of MSCs were analysed by flow cytometric analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect multiple genes related to pancreatic beta-cell development and function. The identity of the IPCs was illustrated by the analysis of morphology, ditizone staining and immunocytochemistry. Release of insulin by these cells was confirmed by immunoradioassay.
Flow cytometric analysis of MSCs at passage 3 showed that these cells expressed high levels of CD29 (98.28%), CD44 (99.56%) and CD106 (98.34%). Typical islet-like cell clusters were observed at the end of the protocol (18 days). Ditizone staining and immunohistochemistry for insulin were both positive. These differentiated cells at stage 2 (10 days) expressed nestin, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), Neurogenin3, Pax4, insulin, glucagon, but at stage 3 (18 days) we observed the high expression of PDX-1, insulin, glucagon. Insulin was secreted by these cells in response to different concentrations of glucose stimulation in a regulated manner (P<0.05).
Bone marrow-derived MSCs from DM patients can differentiate into functional IPCs under certain conditions in vitro. Using diabetic patient's own bone marrow-derived MSCs as a source of autologous IPCs for beta-cell replacement would be feasible.
Chinese medical journal 05/2007; 120(9):771-6. · 0.90 Impact Factor