Xiao Ling Jin

Pusan National University, Pusan, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (6)19.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Toll signaling pathway, an essential innate immune response in invertebrates, is mediated via the serine protease cascade. Once activated, the serine proteases are irreversibly inactivated by serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Recently, we identified three serpin-serine protease pairs that are directly involved in the regulation of Toll signaling cascade in a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Of these, the serpin SPN48 was cleaved by its target serine protease, Spätzle-processing enzyme, at a noncanonical P1 residue of the serpin's reactive center loop. To address this unique cleavage, we report the crystal structure of SPN48, revealing that SPN48 exhibits a native conformation of human antithrombin, where the reactive center loop is partially inserted into the center of the largest β-sheet of SPN48. The crystal structure also shows that SPN48 has a putative heparin-binding site that is distinct from those of the mammalian serpins. Ensuing biochemical studies demonstrate that heparin accelerates the inhibition of Spätzle-processing enzyme by a proximity effect in targeting the SPN48. Our finding provides the molecular mechanism of how serpins tightly regulate innate immune responses in invertebrates.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(2):1567-1575. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Toll signaling pathway, an essential innate immune response in invertebrates, is mediated via the serine protease cascade. Once activated, the serine proteases are irreversibly inactivated by serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Recently, we identified three serpin-serine protease pairs that are directly involved in the regulation of Toll signaling cascade in a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Of these, the serpin SPN48 was cleaved by its target serine protease, Spätzle-processing enzyme, at a noncanonical P1 residue of the serpin's reactive center loop. To address this unique cleavage, we report the crystal structure of SPN48, revealing that SPN48 exhibits a native conformation of human antithrombin, where the reactive center loop is partially inserted into the center of the largest β-sheet of SPN48. The crystal structure also shows that SPN48 has a putative heparin-binding site that is distinct from those of the mammalian serpins. Ensuing biochemical studies demonstrate that heparin accelerates the inhibition of Spätzle-processing enzyme by a proximity effect in targeting the SPN48. Our finding provides the molecular mechanism of how serpins tightly regulate innate immune responses in invertebrates.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 286(2):1567-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tripartite efflux pump MacAB-TolC found in gram-negative bacteria is involved in resistance to antibiotics. We previously reported the funnel-like hexameric structure of the adaptor protein MacA to be physiologically relevant. In this study, we investigated the role of the tip region of its alpha-hairpin, which forms a cogwheel structure in the funnel-like shape of the MacA hexamer. Mutational and biochemical analyses revealed that the conserved residues located at the tip region of the alpha-hairpin of MacA play an essential role in the binding of TolC. Our findings offer a molecular basis for understanding the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2010; 394(4):962-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infect more than half of the world's population and are considered a cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Recently, hypothetical gene HP0421 was identified in H. pylori as a cholesterol alpha-glucosyltransferase, which is required to synthesize cholesteryl glucosides, essential cell wall components of the bacteria. In the same gene-cluster, HP0420 was co-identified, whose function remains unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of HP0420-homolog of H. felis (HF0420) to gain insight into the function of HP0420. The crystal structure, combined with size-exclusion chromatography, reveals that HF0420 adopts a homodimeric hot-dog fold. The crystal structure suggests that HF0420 has enzymatic activity that involves a conserved histidine residue at the end of the central alpha-helix. Subsequent biochemical studies provide clues to the function of HP0420 and HF0420.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2010; 394(4):940-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MacB is a noncanonic ABC-type transporter within Gram-negative bacteria, which is responsible both for the efflux of macrolide antibiotics and for the secretion of heat-stable enterotoxin II. In Escherichia coli, MacB requires the membrane fusion protein MacA and the multifunctional outer membrane channel TolC to pump substrates to the external medium. Sequence analysis of MacB suggested that MacB has a relatively large periplasmic region. To gain insight into how MacB assembles with MacA and TolC, we determined the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans MacB. Fold matching program reveals that parts of the MacB periplasmic region have structural motifs in common with the RND-type transporter AcrB. Since it behaved as a monomer in solution, our finding is consistent with the dimeric nature of full-length MacB, providing an insight into the assembly in the tripartite efflux pump.
    Biochemistry 06/2009; 48(23):5218-25. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysozymes are an important component of the innate immune system of animals that hydrolyze peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall constituent. Many bacteria have contrived various means of dealing with this bactericidal enzyme, one of which is to produce lysozyme inhibitors. Recently, a novel family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors was identified in various Gram-negative bacteria, named MliC (membrane bound lysozyme inhibitor of C-type lysozyme). Here, we report the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MliC in complex with chicken egg white lysozyme. Combined with mutational study, the complex structure demonstrates that the invariant loop of MliC plays a crucial role in the inhibition of the lysozyme by its insertion to the active site cleft of the lysozyme, where the loop forms hydrogen and ionic bonds with the catalytic residues. Since MliC family members have been implicated as putative colonization or virulence factors, the structures and mechanism of action of MliC will be of relevance to the control of bacterial growth in animal hosts.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2008; 378(2):244-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor