[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diesun Miaofang (DSMF) is a traditional herbal formula, which has been reported to activate blood, remove stasis, promote qi circulation and relieve pain. DSMF holds a great promise for the treatment of traumatic injury in an integrative and holistic manner. However, its underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a systems pharmacology model, which integrated cluster ligands, human intestinal absorption and aqueous solution prediction, chemical space mapping, molecular docking and network pharmacology techniques were used. The compounds from DSMF were diverse in the clusters and chemical space. The majority of the compounds exhibited drug‑like properties. A total of 59 compounds were identified to interact with 16 potential targets. In the herb‑compound‑target network, the majority of compounds acted on only one target; however, a small number of compounds acted on a large number of targets, up to a maximum of 12. The comparison of key topological properties in compound‑target networks associated with the above efficacy intuitively demonstrated that potential active compounds possessed diverse functions. These results successfully explained the polypharmcological mechanism underlying the efficiency of DSMF for the treatment of traumatic injury as well as provided insight into potential novel therapeutic strategies for traumatic injury from herbal medicine.
Molecular Medicine Reports 04/2015; 12(2). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2015.3638 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT), a traditional herbal formula, is widely administered as a cancer treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects are not fully understood. In the present study, a computational pharmacological model that combined chemical space mapping, molecular docking and network analysis was employed to predict which chemical compounds in XCHT are potential inhibitors of cancer-associated targets, and to establish a compound-target (C-T) network and compound-compound (C-C) association network. The identified compounds from XCHT demonstrated diversity in chemical space. Furthermore, they occupied regions of chemical space that were the same, or close to, those occupied by drug or drug-like compounds that are associated with cancer, according to the Therapeutic Targets Database. The analysis of the molecular docking and the C-T network demonstrated that the potential inhibitors possessed the properties of promiscuous drugs and combination therapies. The C-C network was classified into four clusters and the different clusters contained various multi-compound combinations that acted on different targets. The study indicated that XCHT has a polypharmacological role in treating cancer and the potential inhibitory components of XCHT require further investigation as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 06/2014; 7(6):1777-1783. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.1660 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huoxue Huayu (HXHY) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a key therapeutic principle for osteoarthritis (OA), and related herbs have been widely prescribed to treat OA in the clinic. The aims of the present study were to explore a multi-target therapy for OA using 10 common HXHY herbs and to investigate their potential applications for treatment of other diseases. A novel computational simulation approach that integrates chemical structure, ligand clusters, chemical space and drug‑likeness evaluations, as well as docking and network analysis, was used to investigate the properties and effects of the herbs. The compounds contained in the studied HXHY herbs were divided into 10 clusters. Comparison of the chemical properties of these compounds to those of other compounds described in the DrugBank database indicated that the properties of the former are more diverse than those of the latter and that most of the HXHY-derived compounds do not violate the 'Lipinski's rule of five'. Docking analysis allowed for the identification of 39 potential bioactive compounds from HXHY herbs and 11 potential targets for these compounds. The identified targets were closely associated with 49 diseases, including neoplasms, musculoskeletal, nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. Ligand‑target (L‑T) and ligand‑target‑disease (L‑T‑D) networks were constructed in order to further elucidate the pharmacological effects of the herbs. Our findings suggest that a number of compounds from HXHY herbs are promising candidates for mult‑target therapeutic application in OA and may exert diverse pharmacological effects, affecting additional diseases besides OA.
Molecular Medicine Reports 01/2014; 9(3). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2014.1914 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The herb pair comprising Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) and Panax notoginseng (PN) has been used as a classical formula for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China and in western countries. However, the pharmacology of SM and PN in this herb pair has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanisms of SM and PN at the molecular level for the treatment of CVDs. We used a systems pharmacology approach, integrating ligand clustering, chemical space, docking simulation and network analysis, to investigate these two herbal medicines. The compounds in SM were attached to clusters 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9, while the compounds in PN were attached to clusters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10. The distributions of chemical space between the compounds from SM and PN were discrete, with the existence of small portions of overlap, and the majority of the compounds did not violate 'Lipinski's rule of five'. Docking indicated that the average number of targets correlated with each compound in SM and PN were 5.0 and 3.6, respectively. The minority nodes in the SM and PN drug-target networks possessed common values of betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, topological coefficients and shortest path length. Furthermore, network analyses revealed that SM and PN exerted different modes of action between compounds and targets. These results suggest that the method of computational pharmacology is able to intuitively trace out the similarities and differences of two herbs and their interaction with targets from the molecular level, and that the combination of two herbs may extend their activities in different potential multidrug combination therapies for CVDs.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 11/2013; 6(5):1163-1168. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1291 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of water extracts from Duhuo Jisheng decoction on chondrocyte G1 phase.
Chondrocytes were collected from four-week-old SD rats to establish the chondrocyte in vitro culture system. The third generation of chondrocytes was intervened. MTT method was used to measure the effect of water extracts from different concentrations of Duhuo Jisheng decoction on chondrocyte activity. The expressions of Chondrocyte Cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and P21 mRNA in the blank group and low, middle and high-dose groups (100, 200, 400 mg x L(-1)) were detected by RT-PCR method.
The MTT assay showed that the chondrocyte activity significantly increased within specific drug concentrations (50-800 mg x L(-1)) (P < 0.01); After the intervention for 24 h, the expressions of CyclinD1, CDK4 and CDK6 mRNA in all dose groups notably increased (P < 0.05), with the maximum expressions at the concentration of 200 mg x L(-1); The expression of P21 mRNA decreased, particularly at the concentration of 200 mg x L(-1) (P < 0.01).
Water extracts from Duhuo Jisheng decoction can promote chondrocyte proliferation by effecting the expression of chondrocyte G1 phase regulator mRNA.
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 11/2013; 38(22):3949-52.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taohong Siwu decoction (THSWD), a formulation prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). TCM has the potential to prevent diseases, such as OA, in an integrative and holistic manner. However, the system-level characterization of the drug-target interactions of THSWD has not been elucidated. In the present study, we constructed a novel modeling system, by integrating chemical space, virtual screening and network pharmacology, to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of THSWD. The chemical distribution of the ligand database and the potential compound prediction demonstrated that THSWD, as a natural combinatorial chemical library, comprises abundant drug-like and lead-like compounds that may act as potential inhibitors for a number of important target proteins associated with OA. Moreover, the results of the 'compound-target network' analysis demonstrated that 19 compounds within THSWD were correlated with more than one target, whilst the maximum degree of correlation for the compounds was seven. Furthermore, the 'target-disease network' indicated that THSWD may potentially be effective against 69 diseases. These results may aid in the understanding of the use of THSWD as a multi-target therapy in OA. Moreover, they may be useful in establishing other pharmacological effects that may be brought about by THSWD. The in silico method used in this study has the potential to advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TCM.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 07/2013; 6(1):125-132. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1106 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Duhuo Jisheng Decoction (DHJSD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used to treat osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanisms of action of the DHJSD have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the compounds in the DHJSD were characterized by three computational methods; the ligand clustering, chemical space distribution and network construction and analysis methods. The compounds that formed the medical composition of the DHJSD were divided into 10 clusters and possessed a broad diversity in chemical space distribution. The compounds also had the same coverage of chemical space as the OA drug/drug‑like compounds from DrugBank. In addition, multiple active compounds were identified as able to target multiple proteins in the drug‑target association networks (D‑T networks). A certain number of key compounds in the D‑T networks have been previously reported in the literature. The present study also constructed drug‑drug association networks (D‑D networks) and classified the DHJSD compounds into five clusters. The clusters represented multiple diverse combinations binding to the OA targets. These results suggested that the DHJSD had drug‑ and lead‑like compounds with potential synergy and polypharmacology against OA.
Molecular Medicine Reports 04/2013; 7(6). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2013.1411 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the difference in the therapeutic efficacy of warm needling therapy on knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients of different Chinese medical syndrome types.
Totally 197 KOA outpatients [including wind-cold-damp retention syndrome (50 cases, 61 knees), yang deficiency cold coagulation syndrome (48 cases, 58 knees), stagnation of blood stasis syndrome (49 cases, 63 knees), and insufficiency of Shen-essence syndrome (50 cases, 66 knees)] were treated with warm needling therapy, 10 days as one therapeutic course, 3 courses in total. The symptom score and changes of clinical efficacy were assessed. The contents of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the synovial fluid were determined before and after treatment.
The symptom scores and the clinical efficacy were improved in all syndrome groups after treatment (P < 0.05), with the best effects shown in the yang deficiency cold coagulation syndrome (P < 0.05) and the worst effects shown in the stagnation of blood stasis syndrome (P < 0.05). The contents of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in the synovial fluid decreased after treatment in all syndrome groups (P < 0.05), with the best effects shown in the yang deficiency cold coagulation syndrome (P < 0.05).
Warm needling therapy had favorable therapeutic effects on KOA patients of wind-cold-damp retention syndrome, yang deficiency cold coagulation syndrome, and insufficiency of Shen-essence syndrome, with the best effects shown on KOA patients of yang deficiency cold coagulation syndrome.
Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban 11/2012; 32(11):1466-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the mechanism of action of Tougu Xiaotong Capsule (透骨消痛胶囊, TGXTC) ex vivo in suppressing chondrocyte (CD) apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprussiate (SNP).
Thirty New Zealand rabbits, 2 months old, were randomized by lottery into five groups, six in each: the blank group treated with saline, the positive control group treated with Zhuanggu Guanjie Pill (壮骨关节丸, 70 mg/kg), and the three experimental groups, EGA, EGB, and EGC, treated with low dose (35 mg/kg), moderate dose (70 mg/kg), and high dose (140 mg/kg) of TGXTC, respectively. All treatments were administered via gastrogavage twice a day for 3 days. Arterial blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and drug or drug metabolites-containing serum was prepared. CDs obtained from knee joints of 16 four-week-old New Zealand rabbits were cultured to the third passage and confirmed by toluidine blue staining. SNP of various final concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/L) was used to induce CD apoptosis, and the dosage-effect relationship of SNP in inducing CD apoptosis was determined. Serum samples from the blank, control, and three dosages of TGXTC-treated rabbits were tested in the CD culture in the presence of SNP. Cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33342 staining, viability of CDs was quantified by MTT, CD apoptosis rate was determined by annexin V-FITC/PI staining, levels of p53 and Bcl-2 mRNA expression in CDs were determined with RT-PCR, and contents of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins were determined by colorimetry.
CD apoptosis was induced by SNP at all concentrations tested and in a dose-dependent manner. The SNP concentration of 1 mmol/L and treatment duration of 24 h appeared to be optimal and were selected for the study. Serum samples from the positive control rabbits and from the two higher doses of TGXTC-treated rabbits showed reduction of SNP-induced CD apoptosis, decrease in p53 mRNA expression, inhibition of catalytic activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increase in Bcl-2 mRNA expression when compared with the serum from the blank group (P<0.05).
TGXTC-containing sera antagonized SNP-induced CD apoptosis and the molecular basis for the action was associated with up-regulation of Bcl-2, down-regulation of p53 expression, and inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-9 catalytic activities.
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 06/2011; 17(6):436-43. DOI:10.1007/s11655-011-0751-x · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the clinical effificacy of electroacupuncture (EA) on treating knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of Shen ()-Sui () insuffificiency (SSI) syndrome type.
A total of 245 patients (279 knees) of KOA-SSI were randomly assigned to two groups by lottery: 141 knees in the treatment group and 138 knees in the control group. The treatment group was managed with EA at the dominant points of Neixiyan (Ex-LE4) and Waixiyan (Ex-LE5) as well as the conjugate points of Xuanzhong (GB39) and Taixi (KI3) for 30 min, once a day, with 15 days as one course; 2 courses were applied with a 5-day interval in between. The control group was treated with intra-articular injection of 2 mL hyaluronic acid into the affected joint every 7 days for 5 times in total. The clinical effects on the patients in different stages were observed, and their symptom scores of knee and contents of cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), prostaglandin E(2alpha) (PGE(2alpha)) and matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), in the knee joint fluid were measured before and after treatment.
The study was completed in 235 patients (263 knees); four patients (7 knees) in the treatment group and six patients (9 knees) in the control group dropped out. Comparison of therapeutic effects (excellent and effective rates) between the two groups showed insignificant differences (P>0.05). Symptom scores of knee and contents of cytokines in the knee flfluid after treatment were lowered signifificantly in the patients of stage I-III in both groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, the lowering of the total symptom score of knee in the patients of stage III in the treatment group was more signifificant (P<0.05).
EA could effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms in KOA patients of stage III, showing an effect superior to that of hyaluronic acid. EA also shows action in suppressing the secretion of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, PGE(2alpha) and MMP-3 in the knee flfluid.
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 08/2010; 16(4):291-7. DOI:10.1007/s11655-010-0513-1 · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the curative effect of dissolving phlegm-stasis on knee osteoarthritis.
The 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly divided into two groups. The 50 patients in the treatment group orally took Chinese medicine while the other 50 patients in the control groups orally took Votalin and Vitamin C for one week as a course of treatment. At the end of 2-week treatment, analytic comparison was carried in evaluate the curative effect and the changes in total score of symptoms before and after treatment between the two groups.
The total score of symptoms after treatment was significantly lower than that before treatment in both groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). The total score after treatment of patients with X-ray grade I and II in the treatment group was more obviously reduced as compared to the control group (P<0.05). The remarkably effective rate after treatment of patients with X-ray grade I and II in the treatment group was also higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).
The treatment of knee osteoarthritis with dissolving phlegm-stasis can effectively improve the clinical symptoms.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 06/2010; 30(2):108-12. DOI:10.1016/S0254-6272(10)60024-6 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of kneepad on expression of Bcl-2 and p53 mRNA of chondrocyte in white rabbits with knee osteoarthritis, so as to explore and treatment mechanism of OA kneepad on apoptosis of chondrocytes of rabbits with knee osteoarthritis in molecular degree.
Forty-four Japanese healthy 6-month-old rabbits (equal male and female,the weight ranging from 2 to 2.2 kg) were used to establish knee osteoarthritis models by modified Hulth method. The rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal group, model group, control group (microwave), experimental group 1 (electricity), experimental group 2 (thermal), experimental group 3 (kneepad). Ten rabbits in the normal group were breed with conventional method; 9 rabbits in the model group were breed with conventional method after model made; 9 rabbits in the control group were treated with microwave for 30 minutes, one time daily; 9 rabbits in the experimental group 1 were treated with electricity (density wave) for 30 minutes,one time daily;8 rabbits in the experimental group 2 were treated with hot (hot soft membrane) for 30 minutes, one time daily; 9 rabbits in the experiment group 3 were treated with electrothermal (OA knee pad) for 30 minutes, one time daily. All the rabbits were treated for 16 weeks and then sacrificed. The expressions of Bcl-2 and p53 mRNA of chondrocytes in knee joint were detected by using fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method.
At the 16 hthek,th e OD260/OD280 value range of total RNA extracted from rabbit articular cartilage tissue in each group were all at 1.80 to 2.00,wh ich indicates high RNA purity. The p53 relative mRNA in articular cartilage cells of model group,th e control group,th e experimental group 1 ,r oup 2,gr oup 3 were overexpressed,an d Belc2 mRNA expression levels of articular cartilage cells were low expression,an d compared with the normal group there were significant differences (P < 0.01). Belc2, p53 mRNA expression in articular cartilage cells,th ere were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the control group, experimental group 1, group 2, group 3 and model group. The results between the control group, experimental group 1 ,group 2 and group 3 had significant differences (P < 0.01).
OA-kneepad can up-regulate the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 as well as down-regulate the mRNA expression of p53, thereby to inhibit the apoptosis of cartilage cells and delay the degeneration of articular cartilage changes.
Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology 09/2009; 22(9):688-91.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism of Tougu Xiaotong Granula (TXG) on prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
Fifty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups. Except those in the normal control group, all the rabbits were replicated into knee osteoarthritis model using modified Hulth method. They were administered by gastrogavage once every day respectively with 100 ml of normal saline to the rabbits in the normal group and those in the model group, with 10 g of Zhuanggu Guanjie Pill to those in the control group, and 5 g, 10 g and 20 g of TXG to those in the three TXG tested groups (tested group 1, 2 and 3). The levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in joint fluid, the blood content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) absorbance as well as the SOD activity in synovia were observed.
Overexpressions of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MMP-3 in joint fluid, increased blood content of NO and MDA were shown in the 8th and 16th week, and decreased SOD activity in synovia was shown in the 16th week of the experiment in all the model rabbits, as compared to those in the normal group, the difference was significant respectively (P < 0.05 or P<0.01). After 8 weeks of treatment, the levels of IL-1, TNF-alpha, MMP-3, NO and MDA in the control group, tested group 2 and 3 were significantly different to those in the model group respectively (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and significant difference was also shown in the comparisons of those indexes between the control group and the tested group 1 vs the tested group 3 (P < 0.05). As for the level of IL-6, significant difference was shown in comparisons of the model group with the control group, tested group 2 and 3 in the 8th and 16th week of the treatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), also in comparison of the tested group 3 with the tested group 1 in the 8th week, and in that of the tested group 2 with the control group and the tested group 1 in the 16th week (P < 0.05).
TXG could effectively postpone the degeneration of cartilage through effectively inhibiting the biological effects of cytokines, MMP-3 and oxygen free radical.
Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban 02/2007; 27(1):50-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the method of replicating experimental animal model of knee osteoarthritis.
Knee osteoarthritis was replicated by modified Hulth's modeling method. X-ray photographic and transmission electron microscopic examination, test of the joint synovial fluid of the modeled joint were performed, and serum contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in blood were measured.
(1) In the normal control group, the articular surface is smooth and glossy, with intact cells and cellular membrane. In the model group, the medial space of the knee joint became obvious narrowed with rough and deformed articular surface and osteophytes, as well as the atrophic chondrocytes with pyknotic cell nucleus and broken cellular membrane. (2) Eight weeks and 16 weeks after modeling, in the model group, the contents of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in synovial fluid and the levels of serum MDA and NO were obviously raised, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in synovial membrane was obviously lowered 16 weeks after modeling, showing significant difference when compared with those in the normal control group (P < 0.01).
Modified Hulth's modeling method in replicating knee osteoarthritis is simple in manipulation with less wound, and the condition of modeled knee joint could be maintained stable to certain degree, which is advantageous to the success of animal model replicating.
Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban 12/2005; 25(12):1104-8.