[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant d109 does not express any of the immediate-early (IE) proteins and persists in cells for a prolonged length of time. As has been shown by Nicholl et al. (J. Gen. Virol. 81:2215-2218, 2000) and Mossman et al. (J. Virol. 75:750-758, 2001) using other mutants defective for IE gene expression, infection with d109 induced the expression of a number of interferon-stimulated genes. Induction of these genes was significantly greater at multiplicities of infection (MOI) of 10 PFU/cell or greater, and the resulting antiviral effect was only seen at MOIs greater than 10 PFU/cell. Using mutants defective for sets of IE genes established that the lack of ICP0 expression was necessary for high levels of interferon-stimulated gene expression in HEL cells. The induction of interferon-stimulated genes by d109 could also be inhibited by infection with an E1-:E3-:E4- adenovirus expressing levels of ICP0 that are comparable to those expressed within the first hour of wild-type virus infection. Lastly, the addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 to cells infected with a mutant that expresses ICP0, d106, also resulted in the induction of interferon-stimulated genes. Thus, ICP0 may function through the proteasome very early in HSV infection to inhibit a cellular antiviral response induced by the virion.
Journal of Virology 04/2002; 76(5):2180-91. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP0 can effectively activate gene expression from otherwise silent promoters contained on persisting viral genomes. However, the expression of high levels of ICP0, as from ICP4(-) HSV type 1 (HSV-1) vectors, results in marked toxicity. We have analyzed the results of ICP0 expressed from an E1(-) E4(-) adenovirus vector (AdS.11E4ICP0) in which ICP0 expression is controlled from the endogenous adenoviral E4 promoter. In this system, the expression level of ICP0 was reduced more than 1,000-fold relative to the level of expression from HSV-1 vectors. This low level of ICP0 did not affect cellular division or greatly perturb cellular metabolism as assessed by gene expression array analysis comparing the effects of HSV and adenovirus vector strains. However, this amount of ICP0 was sufficient to quantitatively destroy ND10 structures as measured by promyelocytic leukemia immunofluorescence. The levels of adenovirus-expressed ICP0 were sufficient to activate quiescent viral genomes in trans and promote persistent transgene expression in cis. Moreover, infection of complementing cells with AdS.11E4ICP0 promoted viral growth and resulted in a 20-fold increase in the plaquing efficiency of d109, a virus defective for all five immediate-early genes. Thus, the low level expression of ICP0 from the E1(-) E4(-) adenovirus vector may increase the utility of adenovirus vectors and also provides a means to efficiently quantify and possibly propagate HSV vectors defective in ICP0. Importantly, the results demonstrate that the activation function of ICP0 may not result from changes in cellular gene expression, but possibly as a direct consequence of an enzymatic function inherent to the protein that may involve its action at ND10 resulting in the preferential activation of viral genomes.
Journal of Virology 05/2001; 75(7):3391-403. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1 is capable of inhibiting host cell DNA synthesis following lytic infection. However, the mechanism and nature of potential effects on cell cycle progression have not been described. In this report, we characterize the dysregulation of the cell cycle following infection with the replication-incompetent virus d106, where immediate-early gene expression is restricted to infected-cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) and the expression of all other viral genes is dramatically reduced or is not observed. Infection with d106 resulted in the accumulation of cells in both the G(1)/S and G(2)/M compartments, consistent with cell cycle arrest at both checkpoints. The isogenic variant d109, which does not express any viral proteins, failed to induce this phenotype, suggesting that the expression of ICP0 is crucial for cell cycle arrest. Analysis of global cellular gene expression patterns following infection with d106 and d109 revealed that a relatively small subset of cellular genes were induced as a consequence of ICP0 expression. A number of these genes induced in the presence of ICP0 are classically considered p53-responsive genes, including p21, gadd45, and mdm-2. However, infection with d106 of cells with both alleles of p53 deleted resulted in the same cell cycle arrest phenotype and similar cellular gene expression patterns, suggesting that the expression of ICP0 results in cell cycle arrest potentially via p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In addition, it was found that the effects of infection with d106 on viral and cellular gene expression were similar to the effects observed following treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A.
Journal of Virology 11/1999; 73(10):8245-55. · 5.08 Impact Factor