Willie J. van Schaijk

Radboud University Nijmegen, Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (5)10.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the P50 gating or conditioning-testing (C-T) paradigm, the P50 response, a small positive midlatency ( approximately 50 ms after stimulus onset) component of the human auditory evoked potential (AEP), is reduced towards the second click (S2) as compared to the response to the first click (S1). This phenomenon is called sensory gating. The putative function of sensory gating is thought to protect subjects from being flooded by irrelevant stimuli. Comparative studies have been done in rats in order to elucidate the underlying neural substrate of sensory gating. However, for a direct comparison of rat and human AEP components, it is imperative for both components to show similar characteristics. The amount of sensory gating in humans is dependent on repetitive stimulation and the interstimulus interval (ISI). In the present study effects of repetitive stimulation (Experiment 1) and various ISIs (Experiment 2) were determined on rat AEP components. The results demonstrate that gating is not limited to a restricted cortical area or a single midlatency component and that repetitive stimulation and ISI affect gating of several rat AEP components. Components such as the vertex P17 and N22 show a decrease in gating within several S1-S2 presentations, mainly due to a decrease in amplitude to S1 (Experiment 1). Gating for vertex components (such as the P17, N22 and N50) is ISI dependent (Experiment 2), but there is no interval in the 200-600 ms range at which optimal gating occurs. The ISI effects on gating are due to an increase of the amplitude to S2. The results have implications for the discussion about the rat homologue of the human P50.
    Biological Psychology 03/2001; 55(3):195-213. DOI:10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00084-3 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though being a sedative, diazepam increases beta-activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Diazepam also affects auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). We investigated if the effect of diazepam on AEPs could be ascribed to its beta-increasing effect. Eight rats received vehicle and diazepam counterbalanced. AEPs were ranked in ten categories according to the percentages of beta-activity in the pre-stimulus electroencephalogram (EEG). With vehicle, the P(29), N(51) and P(67) AEP components increased and cross-correlation coefficients (CCCs) declined with increasing beta-activity. With diazepam AEP components and CCCs remained unchanged. All AEPs with diazepam closely resembled the AEP of the lowest beta-category obtained with vehicle. We conclude that the effect of diazepam on AEPs can not be ascribed to its beta-enhancing effect. Diazepam disrupts the normal AEP-EEG relation such that diazepam-effects on AEPs seem to reflect the sedative effects of diazepam and not its beta-increasing effects.
    Neuroscience Letters 11/2000; 293(2):83-6. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3940(00)01496-8 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of diazepam on sensory gating was studied in rats by measuring diazepam effects on auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited in a ten-tone paradigm. Trains of 10 repetitive tone-pip stimuli were presented. Rats (n = 8) received 4 mg x kg(-1) diazepam subcutaneously or vehicle, counterbalanced over two sessions. Diazepam decreased the amplitude of the middle-latency P30 component and increased the amplitudes of the late-latency N60 and P67 components. The increase in the late-latency components might be due to a diazepam-induced decrease in arousal. Stimulus repetition decreased the amplitudes of the middle-latency N18 and P30 components in both conditions. This suggests that automated neuronal recovery functions underlying sensory gating remain intact with diazepam. In the vehicle condition, the amplitude of the late-latency P67 decreased with stimulus repetition, but not in the diazepam condition. This suggests a diazepam-induced decrease of behaviourally mediated habituation.
    Neuropsychobiology 02/2000; 42(3):158-62. DOI:10.1159/000026686 · 2.26 Impact Factor

  • The Workshop on Chaos in Brain?; 01/2000
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant transients in the cortical electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain were studied by means of spectial analysis. The EEG of rats of this strain contains, besides normal sleep spindles, high-voltage spiky phenomena, epileptic spike-wave discharges, and deviant intermediate stage. Spectral analysis of these transient phenomena shows that some features, like their peak frequency, are alike, but that they differ in other spectral characteristics, as in the first harmonic of the peak frequency and in the domain of the high frequencies. The results provide arguments for the view that spike-wave discharges might be considered as unique aberrant phenomena, presumably related but dissimilar to the high-voltage spiky phenomena and intermediate stage. Next to this, spectral analysis was used to study the intraphenomenal dynamics of spike-wave discharges. The peak frequency was found to decrease monotonously from about 10 Hz at the beginning of the spike-wave discharge to about 8 Hz at the end. Other spike-wave discharge frequency bands showed an intraphenomenal increase followed by a decrease. These time-variant EEG dynamics in spike-wave discharges might correlate with the cognitive disturbances during absence seizures in man.
    Physiology & Behavior 10/1993; 54(4):779–783. DOI:10.1016/0031-9384(93)90092-T · 2.98 Impact Factor