[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the Rhizobiaceae contain 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC(28:0)) in their lipid A. A Rhizobium leguminosarum 3841 acpXL mutant (named here Rlv22) lacking a functional specialized acyl carrier lacked 27OHC(28:0) in its lipid A, had altered growth and physiological properties (e.g., it was unable to grow in the presence of an elevated salt concentration [0.5% NaCl]), and formed irregularly shaped bacteroids, and the synchronous division of this mutant and the host plant-derived symbiosome membrane was disrupted. In spite of these defects, the mutant was able to persist within the root nodule cells and eventually form, albeit inefficiently, nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This result suggested that while it is in a host root nodule, the mutant may have some mechanism by which it adapts to the loss of 27OHC(28:0) from its lipid A. In order to further define the function of this fatty acyl residue, it was necessary to examine the lipid A isolated from mutant bacteroids. In this report we show that addition of 27OHC(28:0) to the lipid A of Rlv22 lipopolysaccharides is partially restored in Rlv22 acpXL mutant bacteroids. We hypothesize that R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 contains an alternate mechanism (e.g., another acp gene) for the synthesis of 27OHC(28:0), which is activated when the bacteria are in the nodule environment, and that it is this alternative mechanism which functionally replaces acpXL and is responsible for the synthesis of 27OHC(28:0)-containing lipid A in the Rlv22 acpXL bacteroids.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/2006; 188(6):2126-33. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharides from pea-nodulating strain Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae 3841, as all other members of the family Rhizobiaceae with the possible exception of Azorhizobium caulinodans, contains a very long chain fatty acid; 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC28:0) in its lipid A region. The exact function and importance of this residue, however, is not known. In this work, a previously constructed mutant, Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae 22, deficient in the fatty acid residue, was analyzed for its symbiotic phenotype. While the mutant was able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules, a detailed study of the timing and efficiency of nodulation using light and electron microscopy showed that there was a delay in the onset of nodulation and nodule tissue invasion. Further, microscopy showed that the mutant was unable to differentiate normally forming numerous irregularly shaped bacteroids, that the resultant mature bacteroids were unusually large, and that several bacteroids were frequently enclosed in a single symbiosome membrane, a feature not observed with parent bacteroids. In addition, the mutant nodules were delayed in the onset of nitrogenase production and showed reduced nitrogenase throughout the testing period. These results imply that the lack of 27OHC28:0 in the lipid A in mutant bacteroids results in altered membrane properties that are essential for the development of normal bacteroids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of the lipid A from Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) lacks phosphate and contains a galacturonosyl residue at its 4' position, an acylated 2-aminogluconate in place of the proximal glucosamine, and a very long chain omega-1 hydroxy fatty acid, 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC28:0). The 27OHC28:0 moiety is common in lipid A's among members of the Rhizobiaceae and also among a number of the facultative intracellular pathogens that form chronic infections, e.g., Brucella abortus, Bartonella henselae, and Legionella pneumophila. In this paper, a mutant of R. leguminosarum was created by placing a kanamycin resistance cassette within acpXL, the gene which encodes the acyl carrier protein for 27OHC28:0. The result was an LPS containing a tetraacylated lipid A lacking 27OHC28:0. A small amount of the mutant lipid A may contain an added palmitic acid residue. The mutant is sensitive to changes in osmolarity and an increase in acidity, growth conditions that likely occur in the nodule microenvironment. In spite of the probably hostile microenvironment of the nodule, the acpXL mutant is still able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules even though the appearance and development of nodules are delayed. Therefore, it is possible that the acpXL mutant has a host-inducible mechanism which enables it to adapt to these physiological changes.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/2003; 185(6):1841-50. · 2.69 Impact Factor