[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are classified as overweight. However, only about 1/3 of severely obese subjects have type 2 diabetes. This indicates that several severely obese individuals may possess certain characteristics that protect them against type 2 diabetes. We therefore hypothesized that this apparent paradox could be related to fundamental differences in skeletal muscle lipid handling. Energy metabolism and metabolic flexibility were examined in human myotubes derived from severely obese subjects without (BMI 44±7 kg/m2) and with type 2 diabetes (BMI 43±6 kg/m2). Lower insulin sensitivity was observed in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Lipolysis rate was higher, and oleic acid accumulation, triacylglycerol content, and fatty acid adaptability were lower in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared to severely obese non-diabetic subjects. There were no differences in lipid distribution and mRNA and protein expression of the lipases HSL and ATGL, the lipase cofactor CGI-58, or the lipid droplet proteins PLIN2 and PLIN3. Glucose and oleic acid oxidation were also similar in cells from the two groups. In conclusion, myotubes established from severely obese donors with established type 2 diabetes had lower ability for lipid accumulation and higher lipolysis rate than myotubes from severely obese donors without diabetes. This indicates that a difference in intramyocellular lipid turnover might be fundamental in evolving type 2 diabetes.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119556. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119556 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Satellite cells can be isolated from skeletal muscle biopsies, activated to proliferating myoblasts and differentiated into multinuclear myotubes in culture. These cell cultures represent a model system for intact human skeletal muscle and can be modulated ex vivo. The advantages of this system are that the most relevant genetic background is available for the investigation of human disease (as opposed to rodent cell cultures), the extracellular environment can be precisely controlled and the cells are not immortalized, thereby offering the possibility of studying innate characteristics of the donor. Limitations in differentiation status (fiber type) of the cells and energy metabolism can be improved by proper treatment, such as electrical pulse stimulation to mimic exercise. This review focuses on the way that human myotubes can be employed as a tool for studying metabolism in skeletal muscles, with special attention to changes in muscle energy metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Cell and Tissue Research 06/2013; 354(3). DOI:10.1007/s00441-013-1655-1 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured human myotubes have a low mitochondrial oxidative potential. This study aims to remodel energy metabolism in myotubes by replacing glucose with galactose during growth and differentiation to ultimately examine the consequences for fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Exposure to galactose showed an increased [(14)C]oleic acid oxidation, whereas cellular uptake of oleic acid uptake was unchanged. On the other hand, both cellular uptake and oxidation of [(14)C]glucose increased in myotubes exposed to galactose. In the presence of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-trifluormethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) the reserve capacity for glucose oxidation was increased in cells grown with galactose. Staining and live imaging of the cells showed that myotubes exposed to galactose had a significant increase in mitochondrial and neutral lipid content. Suppressibility of fatty acid oxidation by acute addition of glucose was increased compared to cells grown in presence of glucose. In summary, we show that cells grown in galactose were more oxidative, had increased oxidative capacity and higher mitochondrial content, and showed an increased glucose handling. Interestingly, cells exposed to galactose showed an increased suppressibility of fatty acid metabolism. Thus, galactose improved glucose metabolism and metabolic switching of myotubes, representing a cell model that may be valuable for metabolic studies related to insulin resistance and disorders involving mitochondrial impairments.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e59972. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059972 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CRP binds to Fcγ-receptors, FcγRIIa (CD32) with high affinity and to FcγRIa (CD64) with low affinity. The binding to CD32 has been shown to be allele specific, i.e. it binds to R/R131 but not to H/H131. Little is known about the cooperation of CRP and neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in inflammatory reactions. The purpose of the present study was to examine CRP-signalling in human PMNs, and whether this signalling is also allele specific. Cytosolic calcium of PMN was measured in a single cell digital imaging system. Receptor expression and polymorphism were studied by real time RT-PCR, flow cytometry and standard PCR. CRP induced cytosolic calcium signals in PMNs from homozygote R/R131donors, but not in PMNs from heterozygote R/H131 donors. However, after the heterozygote PMNs had been incubated with IFN-γ (100 U/ml) for 2 h, both the proportion of cells responding and the size of the CRP-induced calcium signals increased. IFN-γ increased mRNA expression of CD64 about 5-fold and surface protein expression of CD64 about 4-fold. The calcium signal elicited by CRP was augmented by PMN adhesion to fibronectin, but almost totally abrogated by sphingosine kinase inhibitors. The signals were partly dependent on calcium influx. In conclusion, calcium signalling instigated by CRP in human PMN is FcγRIIa allele-specific, as R/R131 responded to CRP whereas R/H131 did not. However, increased expression of FcγRIa (CD64), stimulated by IFN-γ, can augment calcium signalling by CRP in low-responders. This suggests that the state of the PMNs, as well as the genetic origin, affect sensitivity for CRP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical exercise leads to substantial adaptive responses in skeletal muscles and plays a central role in a healthy life style. Since exercise induces major systemic responses, underlying cellular mechanisms are difficult to study in vivo. It was therefore desirable to develop an in vitro model that would resemble training in cultured human myotubes.
Electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) was applied to adherent human myotubes. Cellular contents of ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr) and lactate were determined. Glucose and oleic acid metabolism were studied using radio-labeled substrates, and gene expression was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial content and function were measured by live imaging and determination of citrate synthase activity, respectively. Protein expression was assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting.
High-frequency, acute EPS increased deoxyglucose uptake and lactate production, while cell contents of both ATP and PCr decreased. Chronic, low-frequency EPS increased oxidative capacity of cultured myotubes by increasing glucose metabolism (uptake and oxidation) and complete fatty acid oxidation. mRNA expression level of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex 4 (PDK4) was significantly increased in EPS-treated cells, while mRNA expressions of interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytochrome C and carnitin palmitoyl transferase b (CPT1b) also tended to increase. Intensity of MitoTracker®Red FM was doubled after 48 h of chronic, low-frequency EPS. Protein expression of a slow fiber type marker (MHCI) was increased in EPS-treated cells.
Our results imply that in vitro EPS (acute, high-frequent as well as chronic, low-frequent) of human myotubes may be used to study effects of exercise.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33203. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033203 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to study the effects of benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) on glucose and lipid metabolism and gene expression in differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) incubated for 4 days under normal (5.5 mM glucose) and hyperglycemic (20 mM glucose) conditions. Myotubes established from lean, healthy volunteers were treated with benfotiamine for 4 days. Glucose and lipid metabolism were studied with labeled precursors. Gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and microarray technology. Benfotiamine significantly increased glucose oxidation under normoglycemic (35 and 49% increase at 100 and 200 μM benfotiamine, respectively) as well as hyperglycemic conditions (70% increase at 200 μM benfotiamine). Benfotiamine also increased glucose uptake. In comparison, thiamine (200 μM) increased overall glucose metabolism but did not change glucose oxidation. In contrast to glucose, mitochondrial lipid oxidation and overall lipid metabolism were unchanged by benfotiamine. The expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) was significantly downregulated by benfotiamine treatment under both normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that befotiamine increased peroxisomal lipid oxidation and organelle (mitochondrial) membrane function. In conclusion, benfotiamine increases mitochondrial glucose oxidation in myotubes and downregulates NOX4 expression. These findings may be of relevance to type 2 diabetes where reversal of reduced glucose oxidation and mitochondrial capacity is a desirable goal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review we will focus on external factors that may modify energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) and the ability of the myotubes to switch between lipid and glucose oxidation. We describe the metabolic parameters suppressibility, adaptability and substrate-regulated flexibility, and show the influence of nutrients such as fatty acids and glucose (chronic hyperglycemia), and some pharmacological agents modifying nuclear receptors (PPAR and LXR), on these parameters in human myotubes. Possible cellular mechanisms for changes in these parameters will also be highlighted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle of insulin resistant individuals is characterized by lower fasting lipid oxidation and reduced ability to switch between lipid and glucose oxidation. The purpose of the present study was to examine if chronic hyperglycemia would impair metabolic switching of myotubes. Human myotubes were treated with or without chronic hyperglycemia (20mmol/l glucose for 4 days), and metabolism of [(14)C]oleic acid (OA) and [(14)C]glucose was studied. Myotubes exposed to chronic hyperglycemia showed a significantly reduced OA uptake and oxidation to CO(2), whereas acid-soluble metabolites were increased compared to normoglycemic cells (5.5mmol/l glucose). Glucose suppressibility, the ability of acute glucose (5mmol/l) to suppress lipid oxidation, was 50% in normoglycemic cells and reduced to 21% by hyperglycemia. Adaptability, the capacity to increase lipid oxidation with increasing fatty acid availability, was not affected by hyperglycemia. Glucose uptake and oxidation were reduced by about 40% after hyperglycemia, and oxidation of glucose in presence of mitochondrial uncouplers showed that net and maximal oxidative capacities were significantly reduced. Hyperglycemia also abolished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Moreover, ATP concentration was reduced by 25% after hyperglycemia. However, none of the measured mitochondrial genes were downregulated nor was mitochondrial DNA content. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR showed that no genes were significantly regulated by chronic hyperglycemia. Addition of chronic lactate reduced both glucose and OA oxidation to the same extent as hyperglycemia. In conclusion, chronic hyperglycemia reduced substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle cells and impaired metabolic switching. The effect is most likely due to an induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic and failing hearts have increased utilisation of glucose, but also develop insulin resistance and reduced ability to produce ATP. Increased levels of the IL-6-related cytokine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) are found in failing hearts, and we have recently shown that LIF reduces ATP production in isolated cardiomyocytes. In the present study we investigated effects of LIF on glucose metabolism, and how LIF-treated cells respond to insulin stimulation.
Cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult Wistar rats by collagen digestion, maintained in culture for 48 h, and then treated with 1 nmol/l LIF.
Acute LIF treatment increased deoxyglucose uptake compared with controls, but no additive effect was observed in cardiomyocytes treated with LIF and insulin. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin did not affect LIF-induced glucose uptake. LIF had no effect on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Cardiomyocytes treated with LIF for 48 h did not respond to insulin by increasing deoxyglucose uptake and showed a reduced insulin-mediated uptake of oleic acid and formation of complex lipids compared with control cells. Chronic LIF treatment increased gene expression of the suppressor of cytokine signalling (Socs) 3 and reduced expression of solute carrier family 2, member 4 (Slc2a4, previously known as glucose transporter 4 [Glut4]). In line with these observations, chronic LIF treatment reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of both Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3.
Acute LIF treatment increased glucose uptake in isolated cardiomyocytes by a pathway different from that of insulin. Chronic LIF treatment induced insulin resistance, possibly mediated by altered expression of Socs3 and Slc2a4, and impaired insulin-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3 and Akt/PKB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on fatty acid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells. Uptake of [14C]oleate was increased >2-fold after preincubation of myotubes with 0.6 mM EPA for 24 h, and incorporation into various lipid classes showed that cellular triacylgycerol (TAG) and phospholipids were increased 2- to 3-fold compared with control cells. After exposure to oleic acid (OA), TAG was increased 2-fold. Insulin (100 nM) further increased the incorporation of [14C]oleate into all lipid classes for EPA-treated myotubes. Fatty acid beta-oxidation was unchanged, and complete oxidation (CO2) decreased in EPA-treated cells. Basal glucose transport and oxidation (CO2) were increased 2-fold after EPA, and insulin (100 nM) stimulated glucose transport and oxidation similarly in control and EPA-treated myotubes, whereas these responses to insulin were abolished after OA treatment. Lower concentrations of EPA (0.1 mM) also increased fatty acid and glucose uptake. CD36/FAT (fatty acid transporter) mRNA expression was increased after EPA and OA treatment compared with control cells. Moreover, GLUT1 expression was increased 2.5-fold by EPA, whereas GLUT4 expression was unchanged, and activities of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were decreased after treatment with OA compared with EPA. Together, our data show that chronic exposure of myotubes to EPA promotes increased uptake and oxidation of glucose despite a markedly increased fatty acid uptake and synthesis of complex lipids.
The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2006; 47(2):366-74. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M500300-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found leptin to be strongly expressed in undifferentiated human myoblasts derived from biopsies of the thigh (Musculus vastus lateralis). Both mRNA expression and secretion of leptin were reduced during in vitro differentiation into primary myotubes. However, the expression of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA, was unchanged during differentiation of the muscle cells. Administration of recombinant leptin had no effect on leptin, myogenin, myoD, or GLUT4 mRNA expressions during the period of cellular differentiation. A functional leptin receptor was demonstrated by an acute leptin-induced 1.5-fold increase in ERK activity (P = 0.029). Although mRNA expression of regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) mRNA expression was unaltered, leptin significantly stimulated fatty acid oxidation after 6 h measured as acid soluble metabolites (ASM). Palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), known to modulate leptin expression in other tissues, had no effect on mRNA expression or secretion of leptin from human myotubes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that leptin is highly expressed in undifferentiated human myoblasts and the expression is reduced during differentiation to mature myotubes. The role of leptin in these cells needs to be further characterized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism and are also involved in glucose metabolism. However, the functional role of LXRs in human skeletal muscle is at present unknown. This study demonstrates that chronic ligand activation of LXRs by a synthetic LXR agonist increases the uptake, distribution into complex cellular lipids, and oxidation of palmitate as well as the uptake and oxidation of glucose in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. Furthermore, the effect of the LXR agonist was additive to acute effects of insulin on palmitate uptake and metabolism. Consistently, activation of LXRs induced the expression of relevant genes: fatty acid translocase (CD36/FAT), glucose transporters (GLUT1 and -4), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, and uncoupling protein 2 and 3. Interestingly, in response to activation of LXRs, myotubes from patients with type 2 diabetes showed an elevated uptake and incorporation of palmitate into complex lipids but an absence of palmitate oxidation to CO(2). These results provide evidence for a functional role of LXRs in both lipid and glucose metabolism and energy uncoupling in human myotubes. Furthermore, these data suggest that increased intramyocellular lipid content in type 2 diabetic patients may involve an altered response to activation of components in the LXR pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the effect of exogenous factors known to be of importance for the development of insulin resistance in differentiated human myotubes. Recent data from our laboratory on the effects of fatty acid pre-treatment and chronic glucose oversupply on fatty acid and glucose metabolism, without and with acute insulin are presented, and discussed in the context of other recent publications in the field. Pre-treatment of myotubes with palmitate, chronic hyperglycaemia, and acute high concentrations of insulin changed fatty acid metabolism in favour of accumulation of intracellular lipids. Acute insulin exposure increased (14)C-oleate uptake and levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerol (TAG). Palmitate pre-treatment further increased oleate uptake, both under basal conditions and in the presence of insulin, with a marked increase in the phospholipid (PL) fraction, with a concomitant reduction in oleate oxidation. Chronic hyperglycaemia also promoted increased lipogenesis and elevated levels of cellular lipids. Changes in fatty acid metabolism in human muscle, in particular fatty acid oxidation, are probably crucial for the molecular mechanism behind skeletal muscle insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism. Differentiated human skeletal muscle cells may be an ideal system to further explore the mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-6 related cytokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an IL-6 related cytokine, and elevated levels of LIF have been found in failing hearts. The aim of our study was to investigate how LIF may influence isolated cardiomyocytes. Adult cardiomyocytes were isolated from male Wistar rat hearts and treated with 1 nM LIF for 48 h. Contractile function was measured using a video-edge detection system. Fractional shortening was reduced at 0.25 Hz in LIF treated cells (7.4% +/- 0.5%) compared to control cells (9.0% +/- 0.7%). Gene expression analysis showed that expression of the mitochondrial ATP-synthase F(1) alpha subunit was reduced in cells exposed to LIF. The activity of the enzyme was also reduced in these cells (0.10 +/- 0.05 mumol/min per mg protein) compared to controls (1.23 +/- 0.40 mumol/min per mg protein). The levels of ATP and creatine phosphate were reduced by 15.0% +/- 3.0% and 11.2% +/- 2.7% in LIF treated cells. LIF increased both (3)H-deoxyglucose uptake and lactate levels, suggesting an increase in anaerobic energy metabolism. Beta-oxidation of (14)C-oleic acid was increased by 51.2% +/- 14.1% following LIF treatment, but no changes were found in cellular uptake or oxidation of (14)C-oleic acid to CO(2). In conclusion, LIF induces contractile dysfunction and changes in energy metabolism in isolated cardiomyocytes.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 01/2005; 37(6):1183-93. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2004.09.008 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia in itself on glucose and lipid metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells.
Satellite cells were isolated from biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle and differentiated into multinucleated myotubes in cultures. Metabolism studies were performed using isotopes ([3H]deoxyglucose, [14C]glucose, [14C]oleic acid and [14C]palmitic acid), and mRNA and protein levels were analysed by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting respectively.
Exposure of myotubes to 20 mmol/l glucose for 4 days reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis to 57+/-5% (p<0.0001) and 56+/-5% (p<0.0001) of normoglycaemic (5.5 mmol/l glucose) controls respectively. Basal glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were both reduced, whereas glucose oxidation was unaltered. Total cell content of glycogen and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA were not affected. There was a significant increase in the incorporation of glucose into cellular NEFA (88+/-17% increase, p=0.006), triacylglycerol (44+/-21% increase, p=0.04) and cholesterol ester (89+/-36% increase, p=0.02) in hyperglycaemic myotubes compared with controls. Diacylglycerol tended to be increased though not significantly, and phospholipid formation were unchanged. Relative to controls, total cell content of triacylglycerol was increased by 25+/-7% (p=0.02) and acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 activity was increased by 34+/-4% (p=0.004), whereas acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 mRNA expression was unchanged. Total cellular uptake of palmitic acid was reduced by 18+/-3% (p=0.006) in hyperglycaemic cells compared with controls, while uptake of oleic acid was unchanged. Oxidation of palmitic acid or oleic acid was not affected by hyperglycaemia.
Chronic hyperglycaemia increased triacylglycerol accumulation and the incorporation of carbohydrate into triacylglycerol (i.e. de novo lipogenesis) concomitantly with a reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Enhanced acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 activity supported the increased triacylglycerol synthesis during hyperglycaemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo is associated with reduced lipid oxidation and lipid accumulation. It is still uncertain whether changes in lipid metabolism represent an adaptive compensation at the cellular level or a direct expression of a genetic trait. Studies of palmitate metabolism in human myotubes established from control and type 2 diabetic subjects may solve this problem, as genetic defects are preserved and expressed in vitro. In this study, total uptake of palmitic acid was similar in myotubes established from both control and type 2 diabetic subjects under basal conditions and acute insulin stimulation. Myotubes established from diabetic subjects expressed a primary reduced palmitic acid oxidation to carbon dioxide with a concomitantly increased esterification of palmitic acid into phospholipids compared with control myotubes under basal conditions. Triacylglycerol (TAG) content and the incorporation of palmitic acid into diacylglycerol (DAG) and TAG at basal conditions did not vary between the groups. Acute insulin treatment significantly increased palmitate uptake and incorporation of palmitic acid into DAG and TAG in myotubes established from both study groups, but no difference was found in myotubes established from control and diabetic subjects. These results indicate that the reduced lipid oxidation in diabetic skeletal muscle in vivo may be of genetic origin; it also appears that TAG metabolism is not primarily affected in diabetic muscles under basal physiological conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myoblasts from human skeletal muscle were isolated from needle biopsy samples of the vastus lateralis of young and healthy volunteers. Contaminating fibroblasts were removed, and myoblasts were fused into differentiated multinucleated myotubes. These myotubes manifested both basal and insulin-stimulated (1-100 nM) glucose transport and glycogen synthesis. Insulin increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake by 1.4-fold and glycogen synthesis by 2.1-fold. Measurements of impedance of cell-covered gold electrodes (ECIS system) showed increased micromotion of caffeine-stimulated cells, showing their ability to contract. Acute electrical stimulation of the myotubes increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake by about 30%. Treatment with high glucose concentrations (10-20 mM) for 2-8 days reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Maximal effect was seen after 2 days of treatment with 20 mM glucose. Baseline glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were reduced by 35%, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 25%, and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis by 39%. Total cell content of glycogen was not changed by hyperglycemia. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in hyperglycemia-treated cells was improved by electrical stimulation of the cells. In conclusion, a model of hyperglycemia has been established, and electrical stimulation improved insulin responses.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/2002; 967(1):506-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04309.x · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A common intracellular signal activating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in inflammation is a change in cytosolic calcium concentration. Previously, we have shown that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induces transient calcium signals in PMN, but only after intracellular calcium store depletion. Using a digital imaging system, we show that adhesion of PMN is critical for IFN-gamma-induced calcium signals, and with PMN attached to the optimal coating, the calcium signals are evoked even in presence of extracellular calcium, that is, non-depleted calcium stores. Adhesion to fibronectin, pure or extracted from plasma by gelatin, improved the IFN-gamma responses compared with serum, plasma, or vitronectin coats. In accordance with previous observations, IFN-gamma-induced calcium signals in fibronectin adherent cells were totally abolished by the G-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin and were also inhibited by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors dimethylsphingosine (DMS) and N-acetylsphingosine (N-Ac-Sp). PMN contact with fibronectin alone, measured in cells sedimenting onto a fibronectin-coated surface or by addition of fibronectin to glass-adherent cells, evoked transient calcium signals. However, PMN in suspension did not respond to the addition of fibronectin or arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD). The fibronectin-induced calcium signals were also clearly depressed by pertussis toxin and by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors DMS, dihydrosphingosine (DHS), and N-Ac-Sp. When the product of sphingosine kinase activity, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1-P), was added to the cells, similar calcium signals were induced, which were dependent on a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein activity. Finally, addition of S1-P to the cells prior to stimulation with IFN-gamma partly mimicked the priming effect of fibronectin. In conclusion, fibronectin contact evokes by itself a calcium signal in PMN and further promotes calcium signaling by IFN-gamma. We suggest that fibronectin might activate sphingosine kinase, and that the sphingosine 1-phosphate thereby generated induces a calcium signal via a G-protein-dependent mechanism. Apparently, sphingosine kinase activity is also involved in IFN-gamma induced calcium signals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) has multiple effects on Ca2+ signalling in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), including evoked cytosolic Ca2+ transients, increased capacitative calcium influx and increased sequestration of Ca2+ in intracellular stores. The present study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind the Ca2+ transients. As observed before, the IFN-gamma-evoked Ca2+ signals were apparent when extracellular Ca2+ was removed. A new finding was that the proportion of responding cells and the extent of calcium release increased with increasing time in EGTA buffer. As assessed by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated Ca2+ release, the intracellular stores were depleted during this incubation period, and the extent of depletion correlated well with the appearance of IFN-gamma-induced Ca2+ signals. This store dependence of the IFN-gamma-induced Ca2+ signals was confirmed by the appearance of IFN-gamma-evoked Ca2+ signals in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ after store depletion by thapsigargin. The appearance of IFN-gamma-mediated Ca2+-signals in the presence of EGTA indicates that IFN-gamma stimulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This was confirmed by the inability of the calcium transportation blocker La3+ to abolish the IFN-gamma response and the total abrogation of the response by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Although these latter results imply a role for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate(IP3) in IFN-gamma signalling, comparison of IFN-gamma-evoked responses with fMLP responses revealed clear differences that suggest different signal-transduction pathways. However, responses to fMLP and IFN-gamma were both depressed by pertussis toxin, and the IFN-gamma responses were, in addition, inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Further evidence of the involvement of tyrosine kinase was a slight stimulatory effect of the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. The PI-3K activity was of minor importance. In conclusion, we present evidence of a novel signal-transduction mechanism for IFN-gamma in PMNs, dependent on tyrosine kinase activity, a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and phospholipase C activity.