[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tomato and soy products are hypothesized to reduce the risk of prostate cancer or enhance efficacy of therapy. A study was completed to determine if men with active prostate cancer will adhere to a dietary intervention rich in tomato products and a soy protein supplement men (n = 41) with recurrent, asymptomatic prostate cancer were randomized among 2 groups: Group A (n = 20) consumed tomato products (no soy) for Weeks 0 through 4, targeting a minimum of 25 mg of lycopene/day. Group B (n = 21) consumed soy (no tomatoes) for Weeks 0 through 4, providing 40 g of soy protein/day. For Weeks 4 through 8, all men consumed a combined tomato-rich diet and soy supplements. No grade II through IV toxicities were observed. During Weeks 0 through 4, mean daily lycopene intake for Group A was 43 mg (+/- 15 mg) and mean soy intake for Group B was 39 g (+/- 1 g), remaining similar during Weeks 4 through 8. Serum lycopene increased from 0.72 +/- 0.09 micromol/l to 1.21 +/- 0.10 micromol/l (P < 0.0001) and urinary isoflavone excretion increased from not detectable to 54.1 +/- 5.7 micromol/l (P < 0.05) with 8 wk of diet intervention. Serum prostate-specific antigen decreased between Weeks 0 and 8 for 14 / 41 men (34%). Mean serum vascular endothelial growth factor for the entire group was reduced from 87 to 51 ng/ml (P < 0.05) over 8 wk. In conclusion, prostate cancer patients will consume diets rich in tomato products and soy with excellent compliance and bioavailability of phytochemicals. Further studies combining tomato and soy foods to determine efficacy for prostate cancer prevention or management are encouraged.
Nutrition and Cancer 01/2008; 60(2):145-54. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the ability of polyphenols from tomatoes and soy (genistein, quercetin, kaempferol, biochanin A, daidzein and rutin) to modulate insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-induced in vitro proliferation and apoptotic resistance in the AT6.3 rat prostate cancer cell line. IGF-I at 50 micro g/L in serum-free medium produced maximum proliferation and minimized apoptosis. Polyphenols exhibited different abilities to modulate IGF-I-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression (flow cytometry) and apoptosis (Annexin V/propidium iodide and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling). Genistein, quercetin, kaempferol and biochanin A exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of growth with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) between 25 and 40 micro mol/L, whereas rutin and daidzein were less potent with an IC(50) of >60 micro mol/L. Genistein and kaempferol potently induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Genistein, quercetin, kaempferol and biochanin A, but not daidzein and rutin, counteracted the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Human prostate epithelial cells grown in growth factor-supplemented medium were also sensitive to growth inhibition by polyphenols. Genistein, biochanin A, quercetin and kaempferol reduced the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) content of AT6.3 cells and prevented the down-regulation of IGF-I receptor beta in response to IGF-I binding. IGF-I-stimulated proliferation was dependent on activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathways. Western blotting demonstrated that ERK1/2 was constitutively phosphorylated in AT6.3 cells with no change in response to IGF-I, whereas IRS-1 and AKT were rapidly and sensitively phosphorylated after IGF-I stimulation. Several polyphenols suppressed phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, and more potently inhibited IRS-1 tyrosyl phosphorylation after IGF-I exposure. In summary, polyphenols from soy and tomato products may counteract the ability of IGF-I to stimulate proliferation and prevent apoptosis via inhibition of multiple intracellular signaling pathways involving tyrosine kinase activity.
Journal of Nutrition 07/2003; 133(7):2367-76. · 4.20 Impact Factor