Ulrich Pinkernell

Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs, Duebendorf, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (4)16.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inactivation of B. subtilis spores with ozone was investigated to assess the effect of pH and temperature, to compare the kinetics to those for the inactivation of C. parvum oocysts, to investigate bromate formation under 2-log inactivation conditions, and to assess the need for bromate control strategies. The rate of B. subtilis inactivation with ozone was independent of pH, decreased with temperature (activation energy of 42,100 Jmol(-1)), and was consistent with the CT concept. B. subtilis was found to be a good indicator for C. parvum at 20-30 degrees C, but at lower temperatures B. subtilis was inactivated more readily than C. parvum. Bromate formation increased as both pH and temperature increased. For water with an initial bromide concentration of 33 microgl(-1), achieving 2-logs of inactivation, without exceeding the 100 microg l(-1) bromate standard, was most difficult at 30 degrees C for B. subtilis and at midrange temperatures (10-20 degrees C) for C. partum. pH depression and ammonia addition were found to reduce bromate formation without affecting B. subtilis inactivation, and may be necessary for waters containing more than 50 microgl(-1) bromide.
    Water Research 09/2001; 35(12):2950-60. DOI:10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00577-7 · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Ulrich Pinkernell, Urs von Gunten
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    ABSTRACT: Bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing natural waters is somewhat inversely connected to the ozone characteristics: an initial fast increase followed by a slower formation rate. During the initial phase mostly OH radical reactions contribute to bromate formation,whereas in the secondary phase both ozone and OH radicals are important. To minimize bromate formation several control options are presented: ammonia addition, pH depression, OH radical scavenging, and scavenging or reduction of hypobromous acid (HOBr) by organic compounds. Only the two first options are applicable in drinking watertreatment. By both methods a similar effect of a bromate reduction of approximately 50% can be achieved. However, bromate formation during the initial phase of the ozonation cannot be influenced by either method. Ammonia (NH3) efficiently scavenges HOBrto NH2Br. However, this reaction is reversible which leads to higher required NH3 concentrations than expected. The rate constant kNH2Br for the hydrolysis of NH2Br by OH- to NH3 and OBr- was found to be 7.5-10(6) M(-1) s(-1). pH depression shifts the HOBr/ OBr- equilibrium to HOBr and also affects the ozone chemistry. The effect on ozone chemistry was found to be more importantfor bromate formation. For a given ozone exposure, the OH radical exposure decreases with decreasing pH. Therefore, for pH depression the overall oxidation capacity for a certain ozone exposure decreases which in turn leads to a smaller bromate formation.
    Environmental Science and Technology 07/2001; 35(12):2525-31. DOI:10.1021/es001502f · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New methods for the determination of reactive bromine and chlorine species are presented. Hypobromous acid (HOBr) and all three bromamines species (NH2Br, NHBr2, NBr3) are analyzed as a sum parameter and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), monochloramine (NH2Cl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) can be determined selectively. However, no distinction is possible between HOCl and the active bromine species. The bromine and chlorine species react with ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt) to a green colored product that is measured at 405 or 728 nm. Free chlorine and NH2Cl can be measured in the presence of ozone. The method is therefore suitable if combinations of disinfectants are used, such as chlorine/chlorine dioxide or chlorine/ozone. In natural waters, the method provides a detection limit for all chlorine/bromine species of less than 0.1 μM. The colored reaction product is very stable and allows a fixation of the chlorine/bromine species in the field and subsequent determination of the absorption in the laboratory.
    Water Research 12/2000; 34(18-34):4343-4350. DOI:10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00216-5 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    U Von Gunten, U Pinkernell
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in raw waters and bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing waters leads to a difficult optimisation of ozonation processes. On the one hand inactivation of Cryptosporidium requires high ozone exposures, on the other hand under these conditions bromate formation is favored. In order to overcome this problem we need information about (i) the oxidant concentrations (ozone and OH radicals) during an ozonation process, (ii) kinetics of the inactivation of Cryptosporidium, (iii) kinetics and mechanism of bromate formation, and (iv) the reactor hydraulics. The strong temperature dependence of the inactivation of Cryptosporidium which results in a higher ozone exposure (time-integrated action of ozone) at low temperatures makes it more difficult to fulfil disinfection and bromate standards at low temperatures. Under these conditions control options for bromate formation can be applied. Depression of pH and addition of ammonia have been selected to be the best options. For a given ozone exposure both measures lead to a reduction of bromate formation in the order of 50%.