[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceramide is a lipid second-messenger generated in response to stimuli associated with neurodegeneration that induces apoptosis, a mechanism underlying neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could mediate a metabolic response in CAD cells, a dopaminergic cell line of mesencephalic origin that differentiate into a neuronal-like phenotype upon serum removal, extend processes resembling neurites, synthesize abundant dopamine and noradrenaline and express the catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase, and that this process was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K)-Akt-dependent and could be inhibited by C(2)-ceramide. The metabolic response was evaluated as real-time changes in extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) using microphysiometry. The IGF-1-induced ECAR response was associated with increased glycolysis, determined by increased NAD(P)H reduction, elevated hexokinase activity and Akt phosphorylation. C(2)-ceramide inhibited all these changes in a dose-dependent manner, and was specific, as it was not induced by the inactive C(2)-ceramide analogue C(2)-dihydroceramide. Inhibition of the upstream kinase, PI 3-K, also inhibited Akt phosphorylation and the metabolic response to IGF-1, similar to C(2)-ceramide. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential occurred after loss of Akt phosphorylation. These results show that IGF-1 can rapidly modulate neuronal metabolism through PI 3-K-Akt and that early metabolic inhibition induced by C(2)-ceramide involves blockade of the PI 3-K-Akt pathway, and may compromise the first step of glycolysis. This may represent a new early event in the C(2)-ceramide-induced cell death pathway that could coordinate subsequent changes in mitochondria and commitment of neurons to apoptosis.
European Journal of Neuroscience 06/2007; 25(10):3030-8. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that neurotrophic factors control neuronal metabolism by directly regulating mitochondrial function in the absence of effects on survival. Real-time whole cell fluorescence video microscopy was utilized to analyze mitochondrial inner membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)), which drives ATP synthesis, in cultured adult sensory neurons. These adult neurons do not require neurotrophic factors for survival. Insulin and other neurotrophic factors increased Delta Psi(m) 2-fold compared with control over a 6- to 24-h period (P < 0.05). Insulin modulated Delta Psi(m) by activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) pathway. Insulin also induced rapid and long-term (30 h) PI 3-K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Additionally, insulin elevated the redox state of the mitochondrial NAD(P)H pool, increased hexokinase activity (first committed step of glycolysis), and raised ATP levels. This study demonstrates that insulin utilizes the PI 3-K/Akt pathway to augment ATP synthesis that we propose contributes to the energy requirement for neurotrophic factor-driven axon regeneration.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 02/2005; 28(1):42-54. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy, the most common form of diabetic neuropathy in humans, is associated with a spectrum of structural changes in peripheral nerve that includes axonal degeneration, paranodal demyelination, and loss of myelinated fibers--the latter probably the result of a dying-back of distal axons. Mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been proposed as an etiological factor in this degenerative disease of the peripheral nervous system. Lack of neurotrophic support has been proposed as a contributing factor in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy based on studies in animal models of Type I diabetes. We have recently demonstrated that insulin and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) modulate mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured adult sensory neurons. We therefore tested the hypothesis that diabetes-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is caused by impairments in neurotrophic support. We have used real-time fluorescence video microscopy to analyze mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured adult sensory neurons isolated from normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes caused a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in all sub-populations of sensory neurons which can be prevented by in vivo treatment with insulin or NT-3. The mechanism of insulin and NT-3-dependent modulation of mitochondrial membrane potential involves the activation of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI 3 kinase) pathway. Downstream targets of PI 3 kinase, such as Akt and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), are activated by insulin and NT-3 and regulate sensory neuron gene expression. These alterations in gene expression modulate critical components of metabolite pathways and the electron transport chain associated with the neuronal mitochondrion. Our results show that in adult sensory neurons, treatment with insulin can elevate the input of reducing equivalents into the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which leads to greater mitochondrial membrane polarization and enhanced ATP synthesis.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 01/2004; 8(4):227-35. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as a mediator of neurodegeneration in diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to determine whether deficits in insulin-dependent neurotrophic support contributed to depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane in sensory neurons of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Whole cell fluorescent video imaging using rhodamine 123 (R123) was used to monitor mitochondrial inner membrane potential (deltapsi(m)). Treatment of cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons from normal adult rats for up to 1 day with 50 mmol/l glucose had no effect; however, 1.0 nmol/l insulin increased deltapsi(m) by 100% (P < 0.05). To determine the role of insulin in vivo, STZ-induced diabetic animals were treated with background insulin and the deltapsi(m) of DRG sensory neurons was analyzed. Insulin therapy in STZ-induced diabetic rats had no effect on raised glycated hemoglobin or sciatic nerve polyol levels, confirming that hyperglycemia was unaffected. However, insulin treatment significantly normalized diabetes-induced deficits in sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity (P < 0.05). In acutely isolated DRG sensory neurons from insulin-treated STZ animals, the diabetes-related depolarization of the deltapsi(m) was corrected (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that loss of insulin-dependent neurotrophic support may contribute to mitochondrial membrane depolarization in sensory neurons in diabetic neuropathy.