Tod A Clark

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (13)28.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is now well known that a cardiomyopathic state accompanies diabetes mellitus. Although insulin injections and conventional hypoglycemic drug therapy have been of invaluable help in reducing cardiac damage and dysfunction in diabetes, cardiac failure continues to be a common cause of death in the diabetic population. The use of alternative medicine to maintain health and treat a variety of diseases has achieved increasing popularity in recent years. The goal of alternative therapies in diabetic patients has been to lower circulating blood glucose levels and thereby treat diabetic complications. This paper will focus its discussion on the role of vanadium on diabetes and the associated cardiac dysfunction. Careful administration of a variety of forms of vanadium has produced impressive long-lasting control of blood glucose levels in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in animals. This has been accompanied by, in many cases, a complete correction of the diabetic cardiomyopathy. The oral delivery of vanadium as a vanadate salt in the presence of tea has produced particularly impressive hypoglycemic effects and a restoration of cardiac function. This intriguing approach to the treatment of diabetes and its complications, however, deserves further intense investigation prior to its use as a conventional therapy for diabetic complications due to the unknown long-term effects of vanadium accumulation in the heart and other organs of the body.
    Heart Failure Reviews 02/2013; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vanadium can induce potent hypoglycemic effects in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus animals, but toxic adverse effects have inhibited the translation of these findings. Administration of vanadate in a black tea decoction has shown impressive hypoglycemic effects without evidence of toxicity in short-term studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic action and the toxic adverse effects of a tea/vanadate (T/V) decoction in diabetic rats over a 14-month treatment period. Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus rats were orally gavaged with 40 mg sodium vanadate in a black tea decoction only when blood glucose levels were greater than 10 mmol/L. Glycemic status and liver and kidney function were monitored over 14 months. All of the diabetic rats in this treatment group (n = 25) required treatment with the T/V decoction at the start of the study to reduce blood glucose levels to less than 10 mmol/L. Diarrhea was uncommon among the T/V-treated animals during the first week of T/V treatment and was absent thereafter. There was no evidence of liver or kidney dysfunction or injury. From 2 to 6 months, fewer animals required the T/V treatment to maintain their blood glucose levels. After 9 months of treatment, none of the diabetic animals required any T/V to maintain their blood glucose levels at less than 10 mmol/L. Oral administration of a T/V decoction provides safe, long-acting hypoglycemic effects in type 1 diabetes mellitus rats. The typical glycemic signs of diabetes were absent for the last 5 months of the study.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 12/2011; 61(5):742-53. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to high-intensity noise has been associated with noise-induced hearing loss, hypertension, psychological stress, and irritability. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health considers levels above 85 decibels (dB) as harmful. In the study reported here, we sought to determine whether noise levels in orthopedic cast clinics were within safe limits. A calibrated noise dosimeter was worn by cast technologists during 7 adult and 7 pediatric cast clinics, and noise levels were recorded. Mean equivalent continuous noise levels were 77.8 dB (adult clinics) and 76.5 dB (pediatric clinics), mean noise levels adjusted for an 8-hour day were 76.6 dB (adult) and 75.9 dB (pediatric), and mean peak noise levels were 140.0 dB (adult) and 140.7 dB (pediatric). Mean noise levels in cast clinics were within safe limits and there was no statistical difference in noise levels between adult and pediatric clinics. However, peak noise levels in all clinics exceeded recommended limits, and even brief exposure to noise of this intensity may be hazardous.
    American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) 07/2011; 40(7):E122-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) transients and contractile performance. We investigated the possibility that an alteration in inositol trisphosphate/phospholipase C (IP₃/PLC) signalling may be involved in this dysfunction. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiomyocyte contraction through an IP₃/PLC signaling cascade. We also tested a novel therapeutic intervention to assess its efficacy in reversing any potential defects. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin treatment and maintained for an 8 week experimental period. Active cell shortening was significantly depressed in cardiomyocytes obtained from diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats in comparison to normal control animals. Perfusion of the cells with phosphatidic acid induced an increase in contraction of control rat cardiomyocytes whereas its effect was inhibitory in cells from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were also treated orally with vanadate administered in a black tea extract (T/V) for the 8 week period. T/V treatment resulted in a contractile response that was not different from cells of control animals. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes from T/V-treated animals exhibited significantly improved Ca(2+) transients in comparison to diabetic animals and exhibited a normalized response to phosphatidic acid perfusion. It is concluded that a T/V glycemic therapy is capable of preventing the defect in IP₃/PLC signaling that occurs in diabetes and can restore normal cardiac contractile function.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 12/2010; 11(8):906-10. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sodium orthovanadate suspended in a lichee black tea decoction effectively regulates blood glucose levels in rats with insulin-dependent, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The primary advantage of vanadate delivery with the tea decoction over conventional systems that use water suspensions of vanadate is a significant reduction in the toxic side effects of vanadate. It is unknown if the tea alters the bioavailability of vanadate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered an intravenous injection of STZ to induce diabetes. Four days later, the diabetic rats were treated by oral gavage with 40 mg of Na-orthovanadate suspended in double-distilled, deionized water (V/H2O), tea/vanadate (TV) decoction, or were treated with the tea decoction alone. Vanadium concentrations were measured in blood and various tissues at 1 to 24 hours posttreatment using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With the exception of bone, maximal vanadium concentration in plasma and tissue samples were observed 2 hours after ingestion, but steadily decreased after that. Plasma vanadium levels continued to decrease until 16 hours. In contrast, vanadium steadily accumulated in bone over the 24-hour period. Overall, rats treated with V/H2O contained similar or significantly higher concentrations of vanadium in all tissues compared with TV treatment. The pattern of vanadium accumulation was also similar over time in both treatment groups. Vanadium levels were highest in bone > kidney > liver > pancreas > lung > heart > muscle > brain in both TV- and V/H2O-treated animals. This study demonstrates that the accumulation of vanadium in diabetic rats is reduced when coadministered with a black tea decoction in comparison to administration of vanadium in water. However, this effect is unlikely to be of a magnitude to explain the full capacity of TV to reduce the toxic side effects of vanadate.
    Metabolism 03/2006; 55(2):263-70. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel black tea decoction containing vanadate has successfully replaced insulin in a rat model of insulin-dependent diabetes but is untested in non-insulin-dependent diabetic animals. A tea-vanadate decoction (TV) containing 30 or 40 mg sodium orthovanadate was administered by oral gavage to two groups of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and a conventional water vehicle containing 30 or 40 mg of sodium orthovanadate to two others. In the latter group receiving the 30-mg dose, vanadate induced diarrhea in 50% of the rats and death in 10%. In contrast, TV-treated rats had no incidence of diarrhea and no deaths. Symptoms were more severe in both groups with higher vanadate doses, so these were discontinued. After approximately 16 weeks, the level of vanadium in plasma and tissue extracts was negligible in a further group of untreated rats but highly elevated after vanadate treatment. Vanadium levels were not significantly different between the TV-treated diabetic rats and the diabetic rats given vanadate in a water vehicle. Over the 115 days of the study, blood glucose levels increased from approximately 17 to 25 mmol/L in untreated diabetic rats. This was effectively lowered (to <10 mmol/L) by TV treatment. Fasting blood glucose levels were 5, 7, and 20 mmol/L in control (nondiabetic, untreated), TV-treated and untreated diabetic rats, respectively. Rats required treatment with TV for only approximately 50% of the days in the study. Increase in body mass during the study was significantly lower in untreated diabetic rats (despite higher food intake) than the other groups. Body mass gain and food intake were normal in TV-treated rats. Water intake was 28 mL/rat daily in control rats, 130 mL/rat daily in untreated diabetic rats, and 52 mL/rat daily in TV-treated diabetic rats. Plasma creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly depressed in untreated diabetic rats, and TV treatment normalized this. Our results demonstrate that a novel oral therapy containing black tea and vanadate possesses a striking capacity to regulate glucose and attenuates complications in a rat model of type II diabetes.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 11/2004; 82(10):888-94. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral administration of vanadate has a strong hypoglycemic effect but results in toxic side effects like life-threatening diarrhea. Tea is known to have potent antidiarrhea effects. We investigated the potential of suspending the vanadate in a tea decoction to reduce the diarrheatic action of vanadate. A concentrated extract of Lichee black tea was, therefore, added to sodium orthovanadate. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were orally gavaged with vanadate suspended in water or in the tea decoction, or with the tea extract alone. Blood glucose levels were assessed daily over 11 weeks with levels greater than 10 mmol/L warranting therapeutic intervention. Both the vanadate/water and vanadate/tea solutions acutely reduced blood glucose. The tea extract alone had no effect. The majority of vanadate/water-treated rats developed diarrhea and mortality rates approached 40%. Vanadate/tea-treated diabetic rats experienced no diarrhea or mortality and liver and kidney analyses (plasma ALT and creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and urine-specific gravity) were normal. Animals treated with vanadate/tea retained blood glucose levels less than 10 mmol/L for an average of 24 consecutive days without subsequent treatments. Cataract formation was completely prevented. The mechanism of action of vanadate may have involved beta-cell stimulation because vanadate/tea-treated diabetic rats exhibited normal plasma insulin levels. In summary, because of its long-lasting effects, oral administration, and lack of side effects, vanadate/tea represents a potentially important alternative therapy for an insulin-deficient diabetic state.
    Metabolism 10/2004; 53(9):1145-51. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Red wine and its components have been shown to possess cardioprotective and anti-atherogenic effects. Additionally, red wine and many of its components like catechin, epicatechin, rutin, transresveratrol and quercetin possess antioxidant properties. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is involved in the development of an atherosclerotic lesion. Red wine, therefore, may be anti-atherogenic because of its antioxidant effects on LDL modification. This study examined the antioxidant effects of catechin, epicatechin, rutin, transresveratrol, quercetin and Merlot wines on LDL oxidation. Merlot was chosen because although other red wines have been tested, limited information exists for this variety. Oxidation was carried out with AAPH (2,2'-Azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride) and AMVN (2,2'-Azo-bis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile)), as water and lipid soluble peroxyl radical generating systems (FRGS), respectively. This allowed us to determine the lipophilic antioxidant characteristics of the wine and its components. Conjugated diene assays were used to measure LDL oxidation over 6 hrs. In an AAPH system, all polyphenolic compounds except transresveratrol displayed an antioxidant effect. LDL oxidation by AAPH was also inhibited by aliquots of Merlot wine. No antioxidant effects were observed in an AMVN environment except for a mild antioxidant effect by quercetin. Surprisingly, incubation of LDL with Merlot wine strongly protected against oxidation by AMVN. In summary, the five phenolic compounds displayed antioxidant effects in a water soluble free radical generating system, but only quercetin showed this in a lipid soluble one. However, red wine inhibited LDL oxidation by both water and lipid soluble free radical generating systems. Our data suggest, therefore, that red wines contain unidentified antioxidants that provide protection against LDL oxidation within a lipid soluble environment.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 09/2004; 263(1-2):211-5. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • TOD A. Clark, GRANT N. Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past twenty years vanadium compounds have garnered much attention with respect to the treatment of diabetes. Vanadium’s attraction as a hypoglycaemic agent lies in its oral route of administration. Several different vanadium salts have been used to treat both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in vivo, including sodium orthovanadate, sodium meta-vanadate and vanadyl sulphate. In addition to the hypoglycaemic action of these agents, several biochemical and cellular changes common in diabetes have been positively affected. However, stepping from the animal model to the human diabetic patient has been hindered by the toxicity of these compounds. Gastrointestinal toxicity has been common while other com-plications including hepatotoxicity and body weight changes remain controversial. Many approaches are being investigated in attempts to reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds, These include dosing alterations, combining vanadium with chelating agents, organic modi-fication of the species itself and most recently combining nutraceuticals with the treatment. The anti-diabetic actions of vanadium salts and the toxicity of these substances are reviewed here with mention of the more recent approaches to limiting the toxicity.
    01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: There is a great deal of information presently available documenting a cardiomyopathic condition in insulin-deficient models of diabetes. Less information is available documenting a similar status in non insulin-dependent models of diabetes. We have studied the functional integrity of the myofibrils isolated from hearts of JCR:LA rats. The JCR:LA rat is hyperinsulinemic, hyperlipidemic, glucose intolerant and obese. As such, it carries many of the characteristics found in humans with non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These animals also have many indications of heart disease. However, it is not clear if the hearts suffer from vascular complications or are cardiomyopathic in nature. We examined Mg2+-dependent myofibrillar ATPase in hearts of JCR:LA-cp/cp rats and their corresponding control animals (+/?) and found no significant differences (P> 0.05). This is in striking contrast to the depression in this activity exhibited by cardiac myofibrils isolated from insulin-deficient models of diabetes. Our data demonstrate that myofibrillar functional integrity is normal in JCR:LA-cp rats and suggest that these hearts are not in a cardiomyopathic state. Insulin status may be critical in generating a cardiomyopathic condition in diabetes.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2001; 498:247-52. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - J MOL CELL CARDIOL. 01/2001; 33(6).
  • Atherosclerosis 01/2000; 151(1):309-309. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • T A Clark, G N Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a serious medical and financial burden on western societies. It is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and Canada. The disease is due to a primary defect in glucose tolerance and carbohydrate metabolism resulting from either a deficiency of insulin (Insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus - IDDM) or a state of insulin resistance (Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus - NIDDM). NIDDM comprises greater than 80% of total diabetic cases. Associated with the primary metabolic defects are equally deleterious secondary complications affecting the renal, ocular, nervous and cardiovascular systems. The cardiovascular complications account for a major proportion of diabetic mortality. As such, it is of paramount importance to develop or find an animal model expressing complications homologous to the human condition. Many models of NIDDM are available to the diabetic researcher but choosing an accurate one can be difficult. The following compares the advantages and limitations of one such model, the JCR:LA-cp rat to other NIDDM models commonly used today.
    Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 01/2000; 43(1):1-10. · 2.15 Impact Factor