T V P Bliss

MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (43)309.82 Total impact

  • Electrochemistry Communications 08/2014; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize the reviews and research papers submitted by speakers at a discussion meeting on Synaptic Plasticity in Health and Disease held at the Royal Society, London on 2-3 December 2013, and a subsequent satellite meeting convened at the Royal Society/Kavli Centre at Chicheley Hall on 4-5 December 2013. Together, these contributions give an overview of current research and controversies in a vibrant branch of neuroscience with important implications for the understanding of many forms of learning and memory, and a wide spectrum of neurological and cognitive disorders.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 01/2014; 369(1633):20130129. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in nuclear Ca(2+) homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP3, is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca(2+)-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression establishing an auto-inhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. Expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master-switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.
    Molecular and cellular biology 12/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The editors of Molecular Brain would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 5 (2012).
    Molecular Brain 02/2013; 6(1):7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are pleased to announce that Molecular Brain has been accepted by Thomson Reuters for tracking and is due to receive its first official Impact Factor in June 2013.
    Molecular Brain 10/2012; 5(1):37. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous monitoring of amperometric currents at a glass capillary sensor based on recombinant GluOx and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were performed in region CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices. A transient increase in the glutamate current relative to the basal one at control stimulation (0.052Hz) was evoked by stimulation at 2 Hz for 2 min. The magnitude of the glutamate current was dependent on the intensity (current) of a 2 Hz stimulus and reflected the slope of the fEPSP. The in situ calibration of the L-glutamate sensor revealed that the extracellular concentration of L-glutamate released by 2 Hz stimulation before tetanus is in the range from 0.8 to 2.2 μM and it is enhanced after tetanic stimulation. The L-glutamate level at a test stimulus (0.052 Hz) was estimated to be 32 nM. The recombinant GluOx-based sensor exhibited weak responses to glutamine above 300 μM and L-aspartic acid above 200 μM. The potential use of a glass capillary sensor in combination with fEPSP measurements for electrophysiological study is discussed.
    Biosensors & bioelectronics 02/2011; 26(6):2975-80. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    Guilherme Neves, Sam F Cooke, Tim V P Bliss
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    ABSTRACT: Two facts about the hippocampus have been common currency among neuroscientists for several decades. First, lesions of the hippocampus in humans prevent the acquisition of new episodic memories; second, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is a prominent feature of hippocampal synapses. Given this background, the hypothesis that hippocampus-dependent memory is mediated, at least in part, by hippocampal synaptic plasticity has seemed as cogent in theory as it has been difficult to prove in practice. Here we argue that the recent development of transgenic molecular devices will encourage a shift from mechanistic investigations of synaptic plasticity in single neurons towards an analysis of how networks of neurons encode and represent memory, and we suggest ways in which this might be achieved. In the process, the hypothesis that synaptic plasticity is necessary and sufficient for information storage in the brain may finally be validated.
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience 02/2008; 9(1):65-75. · 31.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synaptic efficacy following long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory consolidation is associated with changes in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs). These changes are often accompanied by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). While the protein products of the majority of IEGs are mainly restricted to the cell body, Arg3.1/Arc product is rapidly delivered to dendrites, where it accumulates close to synaptic sites. Arg3.1/Arc protein was originally considered neurone specific; however, we have recently found Arg3.1/Arc immunoreactivity (Arg3.1/Arc-IR) within glial cells and demonstrated its increased expression after LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Here, we have further investigated this novel finding, using electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to determine the localization and sub-cellular distribution of Arg3.1/Arc protein in GFAP positive glia (GFAP-IR) in the DG. Arg3.1/Arc labelling was seen prominently in GFAP-IR glial cell bodies and in large- and medium-sized glial filamentous processes. GFAP-labelled medium-small peri-synaptic glial profiles also displayed Arg3.1/Arc-IR; however, the very thin and distal glial filaments only displayed Arc-IR. Arc-IR was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, often associated with GFAP filaments, and along the plasma membrane of glial processes. Peri-synaptic glial Arg3.1/Arc-IR processes were apposed to pre- and/or post-synaptic profiles at asymmetric axospinous synapses. These data, taken with our earlier study which provided evidence for an increase in astrocytic Arg3.1/Arc-IR after the induction of LTP, suggest a role for glial Arg3.1/Arc in structural and synaptic plasticity which may be critical for the maintenance of cognitive functions.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 01/2008; 12(2):671-8. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating diverse cellular functions including metabolism, transcription and cell survival. Numerous intracellular signalling pathways converge on GSK-3 and regulate its activity via inhibitory serine-phosphorylation. Recently, GSK-3 has been involved in learning and memory and in neurodegeneration. Here, we present evidence that implicates GSK-3 in synaptic plasticity. We show that phosphorylation at the inhibitory Ser9 site on GSK-3beta is increased upon induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in both hippocampal subregions CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) in vivo. The increase in inhibitory GSK-3beta phosphorylation is robust and persists for at least one hour postinduction. Furthermore, we find that LTP is impaired in transgenic mice conditionally overexpressing GSK-3beta. The LTP deficits can be attenuated/rescued by chronic treatment with lithium, a GSK-3 inhibitor. These results suggest that the inhibition of GSK-3 facilitates the induction of LTP and this might explain some of the negative effects of GSK-3 on learning and memory. It follows that this role of GSK-3beta in LTP might underlie some of the cognitive dysfunction in diseases where GSK-3 dysfunction has been implicated, including Alzheimer's and other dementias.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2007; 25(1):81-6. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arc/Arg3.1 is robustly induced by plasticity-producing stimulation and specifically targeted to stimulated synaptic areas. To investigate the role of Arc/Arg3.1 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, we generated Arc/Arg3.1 knockout mice. These animals fail to form long-lasting memories for implicit and explicit learning tasks, despite intact short-term memory. Moreover, they exhibit a biphasic alteration of hippocampal long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 with an enhanced early and absent late phase. In addition, long-term depression is significantly impaired. Together, these results demonstrate a critical role for Arc/Arg3.1 in the consolidation of enduring synaptic plasticity and memory storage.
    Neuron 12/2006; 52(3):437-44. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression mechanism of long-term potentiation (LTP) remains controversial. Here we combine electrophysiology and Ca(2+) imaging to examine the role of silent synapses in LTP expression. Induction of LTP fails to change p(r) at these synapses but instead mediates an unmasking process that is sensitive to the inhibition of postsynaptic membrane fusion. Once unmasked, however, further potentiation of formerly silent synapses leads to an increase in p(r). The state of the synapse thus determines how LTP is expressed.
    Neuron 12/2006; 52(4):649-61. · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Science 09/2006; 313(5790):1058-9. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    S F Cooke, T V P Bliss
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a well-characterized form of synaptic plasticity that fulfils many of the criteria for a neural correlate of memory. LTP has been studied in a variety of animal models and, in rodents in particular, there is now a strong body of evidence demonstrating common underlying molecular mechanisms in LTP and memory. Results are beginning to emerge from studies of neural plasticity in humans. This review will summarize findings demonstrating that synaptic LTP can be induced in human CNS tissue and that rodent and human LTP probably share similar molecular mechanisms. We will also discuss the application of non-invasive stimulation techniques to awake human subjects to induce LTP-like long-lasting changes in localized neural activity. These techniques have potential therapeutic application in manipulating neural plasticity to treat a variety of conditions, including depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
    Brain 08/2006; 129(Pt 7):1659-73. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p25, a degradation product of p35, has been reported to accumulate in the forebrain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. p25 as well as p35 are activators of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) although p25/Cdk5 and p35/Cdk5 complexes have distinct properties. Several mouse models with high levels of p25 expression exhibit signs of neurodegeneration. On the contrary, we have shown that low levels of p25 expression do not cause neurodegeneration and are even beneficial for particular types of learning and memory [Angelo et al., (2003) Eur J. Neurosci., 18, 423-431]. Here, we have studied the influence of low-level p25 expression in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and in learning and memory for each sex separately in two different genetic backgrounds (129B6F1 and C57BL/6). Surprisingly, we found that low-level p25 expression had different consequences in male and female mutants. In the two genetic backgrounds LTP induced by a strong stimulation of the Schaffer's collaterals (four trains, 1-s duration, 5-min interval) was severely impaired in male, but not in female, p25 mutants. Furthermore, in the two genetic backgrounds spatial learning in the Morris water maze was faster in female p25 mutants than in male transgenic mice. These results suggest that, in women, the production of p25 in Alzheimer's disease could be a compensation for some early learning and memory deficits.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 07/2005; 21(11):3023-33. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of the genetic determinants specifying neuronal networks in the mammalian brain is crucial for the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that ultimately control cognitive functions. Here we have generated a targeted allele of the LIM-homeodomain-encoding gene Lhx7 by replacing exons 3-5 with a LacZ reporter. In heterozygous animals, which are healthy, fertile and have no apparent cellular deficit in the forebrain, b-galactosidase activity reproduces the pattern of expression of the wild-type Lhx7 locus. However, homozygous mutant mice show severe deficits in forebrain cholinergic neurons (FCNs), while other classes of forebrain neurons appear unaffected. Using the LacZ reporter as a marker, we show that in LHX7-deficient mice FCN progenitors survive but fail to generate cholinergic interneurons in the striatum and cholinergic projection neurons in the basal forebrain. Analysis of behaviour in a series of spatial and non-spatial learning and memory tasks revealed that FCN ablation in Lhx7 mutants is associated with severe deficits in spatial but only mild impairment of non-spatial learning and memory. In addition, we found no deficit in long-term potentiation in mutant animals, suggesting that FCNs modulate hippocampal function independently of its capacity to store information. Overall our experiments demonstrate that Lhx7 expression is required for the specification or differentiation of cholinergic forebrain neurons involved in the processing of spatial information.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 07/2005; 21(11):2923-38. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electron microscopic immunocytochemical methods were used to determine the localization, subcellular distribution and expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc/Arg3.1) in dentate gyrus after unilateral induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the perforant pathway of anaesthetized rats. At 2 h post-induction, immunoreaction product was visible in the dentate gyrus in both the granule cell and molecular layers. Arc expression was higher in the potentiated than the unstimulated contralateral hemisphere. Single-section electron microscopy analysis in unstimulated tissue and in tissue prepared 2 and 4 h after LTP induction showed Arc immunoreactivity (Arc-IR) in dendrites, dendritic spines and glia. Arc-IR was associated with synaptic and non-synaptic plasma membrane apposed to axon terminals and with cytoplasmic organelles, including the cytoskeleton. Arc-IR was also present in neuronal perikarya and there was occasional labelling of nuclei and axons. At 2 h post-LTP induction, there were significant increases in Arc-IR within the granule cell and molecular layers of the dentate gyrus and particularly within the middle molecular layer relative to the inner and outer molecular layers. This increase in Arc expression 2 h after LTP induction was blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (RS)-3-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid. In animals killed 4 h after LTP induction, Arc expression had declined and differences between the potentiated and unpotentiated hemispheres were no longer significant. Our data provide ultrastructural evidence for a transient LTP-associated increase in the expression of Arc protein in the middle molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, with preferential targeting to dendrites, dendritic spines and glia.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 06/2005; 21(9):2384-96. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Sam F Cooke, Tim V P Bliss
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the activity-dependent process by which transmission is persistently enhanced at chemical synapses in the brain. Details of the cellular mechanisms responsible for LTP are becoming clearer, as neuroscientists identify the key molecules in synaptic transmission, and also the signaling cascades, transcription factors and effector molecules that alter transmission at potentiated synapses. In this review we describe the contributions of pharmacology to the field of synaptic plasticity, and also discuss the role of LTP in developing potential nootropic drugs to enhance learning and memory.
    Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England: 2000) 02/2005; 6(1):25-34. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The induction and maintenance of synaptic plasticity is well established to be a Ca2+-dependent process. The use of fluorescent imaging to monitor changes [Ca2+]i in neurones has revealed a diverse array of signaling patterns across the different compartments of the cell. The Ca2+ signals within these compartments are generated by voltage or ligand-gated Ca2+ influx, and release from intracellular stores. The changes in [Ca2+]i are directly linked to the activity of the neurone, thus a neurone's input and output is translated into a dynamic Ca2+ code. Despite considerable progress in measuring this code much still remains to be determined in order to understand how the code is interpreted by the Ca2+ sensors that underlie the induction of compartment-specific plastic changes.
    Cell Calcium 01/2005; 38(3-4):355-67. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major role has been postulated for a maintained increase in the autonomous activity of CaMKII in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP). However, attempts to inhibit the expression of LTP with CaMKII inhibitors have yielded inconsistent results. Here we compare the changes in CaMKII autonomous activity and phosphorylation at Thr286 of alphaCaMKII in rat hippocampal slices using chemical or tetanic stimulation to produce either LTP or short-term potentiation (STP). Tetanus-induced LTP in area CA1 requires CaMKII activation and Thr286 phosphorylation of alphaCaMKII, but we did not observe an increase in autonomous activity. Next we induced LTP by 10 min exposure to 25 mM tetraethyl-ammonium (TEA) or 5 min exposure to 41 mM potassium (K) after pretreatment with calyculin A. Exposure to K alone produced STP. These protocols allowed us to monitor temporal changes in autonomous activity during and after exposure to the potentiating chemical stimulus. In chemically induced LTP, autonomous activity was maximally increased within 30 s whereas this increase was significantly delayed in STP. However, in both LTP and STP the two-fold increase in autonomous activity measured immediately after stimulation was short-lived, returning to baseline within 2-5 min after re-exposure to normal ACSF. In LTP, but not in STP, the phosphorylation of alphaCaMKII at Thr286 persisted for at least 60 min after stimulation. These results confirm that LTP is associated with a maintained increase in autophosphorylation at Thr286 but indicate that a persistent increase in the autonomous activity of CaMKII is not required for the expression of LTP.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 01/2005; 20(11):3063-72. · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
309.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1982–2014
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      • Division of Neurophysiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • University of Ottawa
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2008
    • The Open University (UK)
      • • Department of Life, Health and Chemical Sciences
      • • Faculty of Science
      Milton Keynes, ENG, United Kingdom
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary
  • 1987
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom