[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
The catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitor dexrazoxane has been associated not only with improved cancer patient survival but also with secondary malignancies and reduced tumour response.
We investigated the DNA damage response and the role of the activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) accumulation in tumour cells exposed to dexrazoxane.
Dexrazoxane exposure induced topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A)-dependent cell death, γ-H2AX accumulation and increased tail moment in neutral comet assays. Dexrazoxane induced DNA damage responses, shown by enhanced levels of γ-H2AX/53BP1 foci, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ATM and Rad3-related), Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylation, and by p53 accumulation. Dexrazoxane-induced γ-H2AX accumulation was dependent on ATM. ATF3 protein was induced by dexrazoxane in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was abolished in TOP2A-depleted cells and in cells pre-incubated with ATM inhibitor. Knockdown of ATF3 gene expression by siRNA triggered apoptosis in control cells and diminished the p53 protein level in both control and dexrazoxane -treated cells. This was accompanied by increased γ-H2AX accumulation. ATF3 knockdown also delayed the repair of dexrazoxane -induced DNA double-strand breaks.
Conclusions and implications:
As with other TOP2A poisons, dexrazoxane induced DNA double-strand breaks followed by activation of the DNA damage response. The DNA damage-triggered ATF3 controlled p53 accumulation and generation of double-strand breaks and is proposed to serve as a switch between DNA damage and cell death following dexrazoxane treatment. These findings suggest a mechanistic explanation for the diverse clinical observations associated with dexrazoxane.
British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2014; 172(9). DOI:10.1111/bph.13046 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bisdioxopiperazine dexrazoxane (DRZ) prevents anthracycline-induced heart failure, but its clinical use is limited by uncertain cardioprotective mechanism and by concerns of interference with cancer response to anthracyclines and of long-term safety.
We investigated the effects of DRZ on the stability of topoisomerases IIα (TOP2A) and IIβ (TOP2B) and on the DNA damage generated by poisoning these enzymes by the anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX).
DRZ given i.p. transiently depleted in mice the predominant cardiac isoform Top2b. The depletion was also seen in H9C2 cardiomyocytes and it was attenuated by mutating the bisdioxopiperazine binding site of TOP2B. Consistently, the accumulation of DOX-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB) by wild-type, although not by mutant TOP2B, was reduced by DRZ. In contrast, the DRZ analogue ICRF-161, which is capable of iron chelation but not of TOP2B binding and cardiac protection, did not deplete TOP2B and did not prevent the accumulation of DOX-induced DSB. TOP2A, re-expressed in cultured cardiomyocytes by fresh serum, was depleted by DRZ along with TOP2B. DRZ depleted TOP2A also from fibrosarcoma-derived cells, but not from lung cancer-derived and human embryo-derived cells. DRZ-mediated TOP2A depletion reduced the accumulation of DOX-induced DSB.
Taken together, our data support a model of anthracycline-induced heart failure caused by TOP2B-mediated DSB and of its prevention by DRZ via TOP2B degradation rather than via iron chelation. The depletion of TOP2B and TOP2A suggests an explanation for the reported DRZ interference with cancer response to anthracyclines and for DRZ side-effects.
BMC Cancer 11/2014; 14(1):842. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-842 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We searched for a drug capable of sensitization of sarcoma cells to doxorubicin (DOX). We report that the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI103 enhances the efficacy of DOX in several sarcoma cell lines and interacts with DOX in the induction of apoptosis. PI103 decreased the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, which resulted in DOX accumulation. However, the enhancement of DOX-induced apoptosis was unrelated to DOX accumulation. Neither did it involve inhibition of mTOR. Instead, the combination treatment of DOX plus PI103 activated Bax, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and caspase 3. Caspase 3 activation was also observed in xenografts of sarcoma cells in nude mice upon combination of DOX with the specific PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. Although the increase in apoptosis did not further impact on tumor growth when compared to the efficient growth inhibition by GDC-0941 alone, these findings suggest that inhibition of PI3K may improve DOX-induced proapoptotic effects in sarcoma. Taken together with similar recent studies of neuroblastoma- and glioblastoma-derived cells, PI3K inhibition seems to be a more general option to sensitize tumor cells to anthracyclines.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52898. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052898 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coadministration of the iron chelator dexrazoxane reduces by 80% the incidence of heart failure in cancer patients treated with anthracyclines. The clinical application of dexrazoxane is limited, however, because its ability to inhibit topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) is feared to adversely affect anthracycline chemotherapy, which involves TOP2A-mediated generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Here, we investigated the apoptotic effects of dexrazoxane and the anthracycline doxorubicin, alone and in combination, in a tumor cell line with conditionally regulated expression of TOP2A. Each drug caused apoptosis that was only partly dependent on TOP2A. Unexpectedly, dexrazoxane was found to cause TOP2A depletion, thereby reducing the doxorubicin-induced accumulation of DSB. Despite this latter effect, dexrazoxane showed no adverse effect on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. This could be explained by the TOP2A-independent apoptotic effects of each drug: those of doxorubicin included TOP2A-independent DSB formation and depletion of intracellular glutathione, whereas those of dexrazoxane were caspase independent. In conclusion, both doxorubicin and dexrazoxane induce apoptosis via TOP2A-dependent and TOP2A-independent mechanisms, the latter compensating for the reduction in cell killing due to dexrazoxane-induced TOP2A depletion. These observations suggest an explanation for the absence of adverse dexrazoxane effects on clinical responses to doxorubicin.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 06/2009; 8(5):1075-85. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0139 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of individual nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity are not completely understood. We investigated the effects of a chronic treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) on knockouts of the individual NOS isozymes and on transgenic mice with myocardial overexpression of eNOS. Fractional shortening (FS) was reduced in untreated homozygous nNOS and iNOS knockouts as well as in eNOS transgenics. DOX-induced FS decrease in wild-type mice was attenuated only in eNOS knockouts, which were found to overexpress nNOS. No worsening of contractility was observed in DOX-treated eNOS transgenics and iNOS knockouts. Although the surviving DOX-treated nNOS knockouts exhibited no further impairment in contractility, most (70%) animals died within 7 weeks after treatment onset. In comparison to untreated wild-type hearts, the nitric oxide (NO) level was lower in hearts from DOX-treated wild-type mice and in all three untreated knockouts. DOX treatment had no effect on NO in the knockouts. These data indicate differential roles of the individual NOS in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Protection against DOX effects conferred by eNOS deletion may be mediated by a compensatory overexpression of nNOS. NOS inhibition-based prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity should be eNOS-selective, simultaneously avoiding inhibiting nNOS.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 04/2009; 380(1):25-34. DOI:10.1007/s00210-009-0407-y · 2.47 Impact Factor