[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The globular 25 kDa protein cytosine monophosphate kinase (CMPK, EC ID: 22.214.171.124) from E. coli belongs to the family of nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases (NMPK). Many proteins of this family share medium to high sequence and high structure similarity including the frequently found α/β topology. A unique feature of CMPK in the family of NMPKs is the positioning of a single cis-proline residue in the CORE-domain (cis-Pro124) in conjunction with a large insert in the NMP binding domain. This insert is not found in other well studied NMPKs such as AMPK or UMP/CMPK. We have analyzed the folding pathway of CMPK using time resolved tryptophan and FRET fluorescence as well as CD. Our results indicate that unfolding at high urea concentrations is governed by a single process, whereas refolding in low urea concentrations follows at least a three step process which we interpret as follows: Pro124 in the CORE-domain is in cis in the native state (N(c)) and equilibrates with its trans-isomer in the unfolded state (U(c) - U(t)). Under refolding conditions, at least the U(t) species and possibly also the U(c) species undergo a fast initial collapse to form intermediates with significant amount of secondary structure, from which the trans-Pro124 fraction folds to the native state with a 100-fold lower rate constant than the cis-Pro124 species. CMPK thus differs from homologous NMP kinases like UMP/CMP kinase or AMP kinase, where folding intermediates show much lower content of secondary structure. Importantly also unfolding is up to 100-fold faster compared to CMPK. We therefore propose that the stabilizing effect of the long NMP-domain insert in conjunction with a subtle twist in the positioning of a single cis-Pro residue allows for substantial stabilization compared to other NMP kinases with α/β topology.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78384. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to respond to light is crucial for most organisms. BLUF is a recently identified photoreceptor protein domain that senses blue light using a FAD chromophore. BLUF domains are present in various proteins from the Bacteria, Euglenozoa and Fungi. Although structures of single-domain BLUF proteins have been determined, none are available for a BLUF protein containing a functional output domain; the mechanism of light activation in this new class of photoreceptors has thus remained poorly understood. Here we report the biochemical, structural and mechanistic characterization of a full-length, active photoreceptor, BlrP1 (also known as KPN_01598), from Klebsiella pneumoniae. BlrP1 consists of a BLUF sensor domain and a phosphodiesterase EAL output domain which hydrolyses cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). This ubiquitous second messenger controls motility, biofilm formation, virulence and antibiotic resistance in the Bacteria. Crystal structures of BlrP1 complexed with its substrate and metal ions involved in catalysis or in enzyme inhibition provide a detailed understanding of the mechanism of the EAL-domain c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases. These structures also sketch out a path of light activation of the phosphodiesterase output activity. Photon absorption by the BLUF domain of one subunit of the antiparallel BlrP1 homodimer activates the EAL domain of the second subunit through allosteric communication transmitted through conserved domain-domain interfaces.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The X-ray crystallographic analysis of redox-active systems may be complicated by photoreduction. Although radiolytic reduction by the probing X-ray beam may be exploited to generate otherwise short-lived reaction intermediates of metalloproteins, it is generally an undesired feature. Here, the X-ray-induced reduction of the three heme proteins myoglobin, cytochrome P450cam and chloroperoxidase has been followed by on-line UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. All three systems showed a very rapid reduction of the heme iron. In chloroperoxidase the change of the ionization state from ferric to ferrous heme is associated with a movement of the heme-coordinating water molecule. The influence of the energy of the incident X-ray photons and of the presence of scavengers on the apparent reduction rate of ferric myoglobin crystals was analyzed.