ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study of school-age children was to estimate prevalence and interrelationships of overweight, central adiposity, and hypertension. It included 1,070 children in kindergarten through sixth grade (67% Hispanic, 26% African American, mean age = 8.9 years). Measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and/or diastolic hypertension identified by measurements on three separate occasions. Percentage overweight (BMI >or=95th percentile) was 28.7%, 17.9% were at risk of overweight, 28.8% had WC >or=90th percentile, and 9.4% had elevated (>or=90th percentile) systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (BP). If we had screened only for BMI and examined those with BMI >or=85th percentile or underweight for hypertension, we would have missed 26% of the children with persistently elevated BP. WC explained variance in elevated BP not explained by BMI (p < .001). Measurement of WC is easily incorporated in a school-based screening protocol.
Journal of pediatric nursing 04/2010; 25(2):119-25.
ABSTRACT: (1) Determine the prevalence of overweight and high blood pressure (BP) among middle and high school students over a 2-year period and, (2) measure the cost and initial outcomes of screening.
Cost and outcome description using a cross-sectional design sample. The target population was 12- to 19-year-old healthy students attending grades 7 through 12 at 3 proximal schools located in a large urban school district in Texas.
Of 2,338 students screened, 925 (39.6%) had a body mass index (BMI)>or=85th percentile and 504 (21.6%) had BMIs>or=95th percentile for age and gender. There were 346 students (14.8%) with BMIs>or=85th percentile and systolic blood pressure (SBP)>or=95th percentile for age, gender, and height. The cost of the 2-year screening program was $66,442, and the cost per student was $28. The cost to identify a student with increased BMI or high SBP was $72 and $107, respectively.
This study offered an objective framework to examine the cost and outcomes of screening children for overweight and increased BP. The study has implications for discussion and informed decision making about school-based screening for these conditions.
Public Health Nursing 05/2008; 25(3):235-43. · 0.72 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The association between physical activity (PA) and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is documented in adults. This association and factors that may modify it, such as obesity, have not been reported in adolescents. The aims of this study were to determine the association of PA with ABP in 11- to 16-year-old adolescents, and to examine the modifying effects of obesity and other factors.
Data on 24-h ABP and PA were obtained from 374 adolescents using the wrist actigraph. Correlations between average PA for every 5-min interval preceding each BP measurement and ABP were calculated during the awake period. Mixed-effects models were used with ABP variables as separate, dependent variables. In addition to PA scores for 5 min preceding each BP, body mass index (BMI) z-score and other variables were added to the models as covariates and as interaction terms with activity.
Correlations of PA for 5 min preceding BP measurements were 0.22 and 0.25 for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) respectively. In mixed-effects analysis, each 1-unit increase in PA was associated with an increase in SBP of 0.02 mm Hg, in DBP of 0.01 mm Hg, and in HR of 0.02 beat/min (P < .0001). The association of BP with PA was significantly less for those with higher BMI z-scores (SBP, P < .001, DBP, P = .027). The associations of PA with SBP and HR were modified by sexual maturation status of the adolescents.
This study found that PA is associated with ABP measurements. These associations are modified by obesity status and other variables. Recognizing these associations may improve the interpretation of ABP measurements.
American Journal of Hypertension 02/2007; 20(2):140-7. · 3.18 Impact Factor