[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective, randomized, open-label study was conducted to evaluate effects on mammographic density in postmenopausal and late perimenopausal women receiving continuous combined or sequential combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
The subjects were randomized to treatment with low-dose continuous combined HRT containing 1 mg 17beta-estradiol plus 0.5 mg norethisterone acetate (Activelle) or a sequential combined HRT regimen consisting of 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens for 28 days plus 5 mg medrogestone for 14 days (Presomen). Mammograms were obtained at baseline and after 9 cycles (each 28 days) of treatment.
The majority of women (approximately two-thirds in each treatment group) had no changes in mammographic breast density between baseline and the final study visit. There were no marked differences between treatment groups. Approximately 20% of women in both groups had a slight increase in mammographic density. Only 10-14% of women in both groups had a pronounced increase in mammographic density. The analyses of the degree of change showed no remarkable differences between treatments.
These results indicate that the increase in mammographic density with a low-dose continuous combined HRT regimen is no greater than that with a sequential combined HRT regimen. The type of progestogen does not have an impact on the extent of mammographic density changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of women presenting irregular bleeding episodes following 9 months of treatment with a low dose continuous combined hormone replacement therapy consisting of estradiol (E(2)) and norethisterone acetate (NETA) versus a sequential hormone replacement therapy consisting of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and medrogestone (MG). Secondary aims were to establish the relationship between menopausal age and the occurrence of irregular bleeding for both therapies and to assess the efficacy of both therapies in alleviating menopausal symptoms.
This was a stratified and randomised, open label study conducted with late peri and postmenopausal women at 35 sites in Austria and Germany. A total of 446 women were randomly allocated into two cohorts based on time since last bleeding and then stratified to either a low dose continuous combined therapy consisting of 1 mg E(2) and 0.5 mg NETA for 28 days or a sequential therapy consisting of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days and 5 mg MG for the final 14 days. Bleeding and menopausal complaints were continuously assessed. Treatments were administered for 9 lunar months.
The incidence rate of women presenting irregular bleeding episodes including spotting during cycle 9 was 12.2% with 1mgE(2)/0.5mgNETA and 25.8% with 0.625mgCEE/5mgMG (P = 0.0014). In the group of postmenopausal women (time since last bleeding > or = 12 months) the incidence of irregular bleeding during cycle 9 was 11.0% for 1mgE(2)/0.5mgNETA and 25.0% for 0.625mgCEE/5mgMG). In the group of late perimenopausal women (time since last bleeding 6-11 months) the incidence of irregular bleeding was similar for both treatments at cycle 3, but markedly less in patients with 1mgE(2)/0.5mgNETA at cycle 6 and 9, being significantly different compared to patients with 0.625mgCEE/5mgMG at cycle 6 (P < 0.05). The cumulative rate of amenorrhea (no bleeding or spotting) achieved with 1mgE(2)/0.5mgNETA was 89% for the postmenopausal women and 83.7% for the late perimenopausal women. Both treatments relieved menopausal complaints equally effective.
Regarding the occurrence of irregular bleeding, the low dose continuous combined therapy was superior to the sequential therapy (0.625mgCEE/5mgMG). The low dose continuous combined E(2)/NETA regimen is also suitable for late perimenopausal women since more than 80% of the women had no bleeding or spotting after 9 months of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient's wishes for a hormone replacement therapy (HRT) without withdrawal bleedings are decisive for a good compliance. Systematic experience concerning the bleeding profile when switching from a sequential hormone replacement therapy (s.c.HRT) to a continuous combined hormone replacement therapy (c.c.HRT) is sparse. This non-interfering study is designed to investigate the bleeding profile after such a switch.
1 018 gynaecological centres recruited 3 917 patients pretreated with a s.c.HRT for this study. The switch from the s.c.HRT to the c.c.HRT was performed with a low-dose combination of 1 mg estradiol plus 0.5 mg norethisterone acetate (NETA). The bleeding profile was evaluated after 6 to 9 months of treatment according to the patient's diaries.
Amenorrhoea was reached in 74.4 % of the enrolled patients after 3 months, in 90.6 % after 6 months, and in 92.1 % after 9 months of treatment. At the time of the switch to the c.c.HRT, already 32.4 % of the women were free of withdrawal bleedings. Parameters like age of the patients, body mass index (BMI), dosage of the estrogen during pretreatment did not influence the results considerably. 92.7 % of the physicians and 92.5 % of the women rated the combined treatment of 1 mg estradiol and 0.5 mg NETA (Activelle) as satisfactory.
The switch from a s.c.HRT to a continuous combined treatment with 1 mg estradiol plus 0.5 mg NETA can be performed without problems, resulting in a high rate of amenorrhoea and a high acceptance of physicians as well as patients.
Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 08/2002; 124(7):368-73.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a new 7-day transdermal sequential estradiol/levonorgestrel patch (Fem7 Combi; Merck KGaA; Germany), versus placebo, as hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women.
A multicentre, randomized, clinical study consisting of a 3-week screening phase, a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment phase, and a 12-week open, follow-up phase. Women aged 40-65 years with an intact uterus and menopausal complaints were randomized to either 2 weeks of an estradiol mono patch (50 microg per 24 h) followed by 2 weeks of an estradiol/levonorgestrel combination patch (50 microg/10 microg per 24 h), or a placebo patch, for three 28-day cycles. Changes in the Kupperman Index and the frequency of hot flushes were assessed.
The sequential use of a 7-day estradiol patch and a 7-day estradiol/levonorgestrel patch was superior to placebo in reducing menopausal symptoms, and was well tolerated. At the end of the treatment phase, there was a statistically significant reduction in the Kupperman Index score versus placebo (P<0.0001), and a statistically significant difference between groups in the proportion of patients with a reduction in the number of hot flushes (at least 50% versus baseline). During the open follow-up phase, there was a marked reduction in the Kupperman Index score and the number of hot flushes for patients switched from placebo to active study medication. The active medication was effective throughout the 1-week application period.
The new 7-day transdermal sequential estradiol/levonorgestrel patch was well tolerated, providing rapid and effective relief of menopausal symptoms. The addition of low-dose levonorgestrel did not influence the beneficial effects of estradiol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: the purpose of this study was to assess the endometrial safety and patient acceptability of a pulsed estrogen therapy provided by S21400 (intranasal 17 beta-estradiol) in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms.
postmenopausal women (n=408) entered an open-label, community based, multicentre trial. Patients received S21400 plus sequential (>90% of patients) or continuous progestogen. Treatment was initiated with a standard daily dose of 300 microg but dose adaptation was possible every 3 months from 150 to 600 microg daily. Endometrial biopsies were performed at entry and at 12 months, and bleeding patterns were recorded at 3-monthly intervals throughout the trial.
71% of patients received 300 microg per day S21400 throughout the study, 3% had their dose decreased, 19% had their dose increased and 7% had their dose both decreased and increased. Three hundred and eleven biopsies were obtained after 12 months of treatment, there were no cases of endometrial hyperplasia. The 95% confidence interval [CI] for the rate of incidence was 0-1.2%. Cyclical bleeding occurred in 82% of sequential treatment cycles. Unexpected bleeding occurred in 5% of the treatment cycles. Presence of unexpected bleeding varied according to the treatment regimen, 15 and 4% of the cycles with combined continuous and sequential regimen, respectively. Unexpected bleeding was mostly spotting. Nasal treatment was well accepted. Nasal symptoms (itching sensation, rhinorrhea and sneezing) were mostly mild in intensity and they led to treatment withdrawal in approximately 3% of patients. The rate of treatment continuation was 85% at 1 year.
S21400, in combination with continuous or sequential progestogen, exhibits good endometrial safety and patient acceptability in postmenopausal women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a continuously applied 7-day-Estradiol patch (Fem7, Merck KGaA, Germany) delivering 50 microg estradiol per day in the treatment of hysterectomized women with postmenopausal complaints compared with placebo.
A multicentre, randomized, double-blind study with an initial screening phase (phase I), a 3-month double-blind placebo-controlled phase (phase II) and a 3-month open follow-up phase (phase III).
186 patients were randomized for a 3-cycle placebo-controlled study followed by a 3-cycle open follow-up (total duration; 6 months). The changes in Kupperman Index (primary efficacy variable), hot flushes and urogenital symptom score were studied from baseline to the end of the study. In addition, skin tolerability was assessed and patients were also asked to grade the subjective acceptance of therapy.
A reduction in Kupperman Index was observed in both groups, and at each cycle of the placebo-controlled treatment phase the 7-day-Estradiol patch was superior compared with placebo (last value vs. baseline P = 0.0006). From the second treatment week onwards a distinct difference was noted in the reduction of hot flushes from baseline between the 7-day-Estradiol patch group and the placebo group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant for each cycle and at the end of the controlled treatment phase (mean weekly hot flush reduction at the end of the placebo-controlled treatment phase: -32.5 for the 7-day-Estradiol patch vs. -22.0 for placebo, P = 0.0025). The efficacy of the 7-day-Estradiol patch within the application period did not show any difference between days 1-3 and 4-7. Subjective acceptance of the 7-day-Estradiol patch was good and 72.4% of patients who took active medication throughout the study were willing to consider continuing its use.
The 7-day-Estradiol patch is well tolerated and provides effective relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms in hysterectomized women, with a rapid onset of action and 7-day duration of therapeutic effect. Although a placebo effect was observed, the 7-day-Estradiol patch significantly reduced hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms throughout the application period.