[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dupA of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested as a virulence marker associated with the development of duodenal ulcer disease. However, the studies performed in different geographical areas have shown that there are variations in the prevalence of dupA and its association with H. pylori clinical outcomes. Our group did not observe associations between the presence of dupA and H. pylori clinical outcomes in Brazil. On the other hand, we observed 2 mutations in the sequence of dupA that lead to stop codons: a deletion of an adenine at position 1311 and an insertion of an adenine at position 1426 of the gene. Our aim was to evaluate associations of the presence of dupA with duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, considering dupA-positive only those H. pylori strains that do not have the mutations in the gene sequence. We also evaluated the effect of infection with a strain carrying an intact dupA on the gastric mucosa histology and IL-8 gastric levels. Colonization with strains that had the intact dupA was negatively associated with gastric carcinoma (p=0.001, OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.16-0.66). The presence of dupA was also associated with an increased degree of antral mucosa inflammation (p=0.01) and with decreased corpus atrophy (p<0.01) as well as with increased gastric mucosa IL-8 levels (p=0.04). In conclusion, the infection with a H. pylori strain containing the dupA without the stop codon polymorphisms is associated with a lower risk of development of gastric carcinoma in Brazilian subjects.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 11/2010; 301(3):225-8. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duodenal ulcer-promoting gene (dupA) was recently described as a new putative Helicobacter pylori virulence marker associated with an increased risk for duodenal ulcer and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in Japan and Korea. Since differences regarding the association among H. pylori markers and H. pylori-associated diseases have been demonstrated around the world, we evaluated the presence of the gene in 482 strains from Brazilian children (34 with duodenal ulcer and 97 with gastritis) and adults (126 with duodenal ulcer, 144 with gastritis and 81 with gastric carcinoma) by PCR using the described primers and an additional set of primers based on Brazilian strain sequences. The results were confirmed by sequencing. The presence of cagA was investigated by PCR and also included in the analysis. dupA was present in 445 (92.32%) and absent in 29 (6.02%) strains. All samples from children with and without duodenal ulcer were dupA-positive (p=1.0). No association was observed among the strains from adults with gastritis (92.36%), duodenal ulcer (87.30%, p=0.30) and gastric carcinoma (87.65%, p=0.31). Conversely, cagA-positve status remained independently associated with duodenal ulcer (children: odds ratios (OR)=5.58, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.67-18.50; adults: OR=3.33, 95% CI=2.14-5.19) and gastric carcinoma (OR=6.58, 95% CI=3.51-12.30) in multivariate analyses. The presence of dupA was significantly higher in strains from children than in those from adults (p=0.01). In conclusion, dupA is highly frequent and not associated with H. pylori-associated diseases in both Brazilian adults and children, which points to regional differences in the distribution of the gene.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 05/2008; 298(3-4):223-30. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunological alterations associated with aging (immunosenescence) do not represent a simple unidirectional decline in all functions but develop as a complex remodeling of the immune system, involving multiple reorganization and developmentally regulated changes. In general, most data available about aging were obtained at particular age intervals and most of them come from Caucasian individuals from either Europe or the United States. Here, we report the frequencies of major lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from 2 distinct geographic regions (Southeast and South) at several age intervals spanning a lifetime period (0-86 years). Overall, we demonstrated that changes in the frequencies of cells related to both innate and adaptive immunity clearly occur with aging in these individuals. These changes were not progressive and equally steady for all cell populations tested but instead showed an oscillatory or rhythmic behavior that was distinctive of each population at different age intervals. We also observed that abrupt changes in the frequencies of immune cells may occur in healthy individuals over 75 years old, suggesting there is an impaired flexibility of the immune system at late stages of life to sustain homeostasis via immune mechanisms. We presented reference ranges for healthy Brazilian individuals at all ages. The knowledge of these parameters in further detail will allow interventions to optimize immune function in advanced age and to improve the quality of life in the elderly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunological mechanisms involved in the development of duodenal ulcer, especially in childhood, are unclear. Helicobacter pylori-positive children and adults, with and without duodenal ulcer, were therefore compared with respect to CD4(+) T-cells, and CD8(+) T-cells, B-cells and B1a-cells, as well as cell activation (CD4(+)/HLA-DR(+) and CD8(+)/HLA-DR(+)) and co-stimulatory (CD4(+)/CD28(+) and CD8(+)/CD28(+)) markers, in peripheral blood. Children with and without duodenal ulcer differed significantly. In particular, there was a phenotypic change in CD8(+) T-cells from children with ulcer that involved a 200% increase in the number of CD8(+)/HLA-DR(+) cells/mm(3) and a decrease of 34.2% in the number of CD8(+)/CD28(+) cells/mm(3). This phenotype of chronically activated memory CD8(+) T-cells, which has also been observed in patients with AIDS and tuberculosis, is associated with disease severity and progression. A lower frequency of B1a-cells was also observed in the group of children with ulcer. Conversely, no difference between infected adults with and without ulcer was observed, but the percentage of CD4(+)/HLA-DR(+) cells was lower in adults with ulcer, suggesting that a down-regulated immune response may play a role in the development of duodenal ulcer in adults. Gastric inflammation correlated positively with CD4(+) and chronically activated CD4(+) T-cells in children and adults without duodenal ulcer, respectively. These results suggest that there are differences in the immunophenotyping profile between H. pylori-positive children and adults with duodenal ulcer, indicating the possibility of distinct immune mechanisms in the development of the disease according to age.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 12/2007; 13(11):1083-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Helicobacter heilmannii infection is less common than H. pylori infection in humans, it is considered to be of medical importance because of its association with gastritis, gastric ulcer, carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach. However, there have been no studies evaluating the role of the Th cell response in H. heilmannii gastric infection. We evaluated the participation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-4, in H. heilmannii gastric infection in genetically IFN-gamma- or IL-4-deficient mice. The serum IFN-gamma and IL-4 concentrations were determined by ELISA. The gastric polymorphonuclear infiltrate was higher (P = 0.007) in H. heilmannii-positive than in H. heilmannii-negative wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, whereas no significant inflammation was demonstrable in the stomach of H. heilmannii-positive IFN-gamma(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. The degree of gastric inflammatory cells, especially in oxyntic mucosa, was also higher (P = 0.007) in infected IL-4(-/-) than in WT BALB/c mice. Serum IFN-gamma levels were significantly higher in IL-4(-/-) than in WT BALB/c mice, independently of H. heilmannii-positive or -negative status. Although no difference in serum IFN-gamma levels was seen between H. heilmannii-positive (11.3 +/- 3.07 pg/mL, mean +/- SD) and -negative (11.07 +/- 3.5 pg/mL) WT BALB/c mice, in the group of IL-4(-/-) animals, the serum concentration of IFN-gamma was significantly higher in the infected ones (38.16 +/- 10.5 pg/mL, P = 0.04). In contrast, serum IL-4 levels were significantly decreased in H. heilmannii-positive (N = 10) WT BALB/c animals compared to the negative (N = 10) animals. In conclusion, H. heilmannii infection induces a predominantly Th1 immune response, with IFN-gamma playing a central role in gastric inflammation.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 02/2006; 39(2):253-61. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are differences between children and adults in certain aspects of the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, among them the lower titre of IgG antibodies anti-HP in the former group. Thus, we investigated by means of flow cytometry CD4+/CD3+ (CD4+T), CD8+/CD3+ (CD8+T) and CD19+/CD3- (B) cells, activation/co-stimulatory markers (CD4+/HLA-DR+, CD4+/CD28+, CD8+/HLA-DR+ and CD8+/CD28+) and by means of ELISA IgG anti-HP antibodies in the peripheral blood from HP-positive and -negative children and adults. An increased CD4+/CD28+ and CD8+/CD28+ percentage and number of CD4+/CD3+ cells were seen in infected adults. Conversely, no difference was observed between infected and noninfected children, but when they were stratified by age, an increased CD4+/CD28+ cell percentage was seen in the HP-positive group older than 10 years. The mean level of IgG anti-HP was lower in younger infected children, increased with age and correlated with CD4+ cells. Our data suggest that the immune response to HP infection vary according to the age. Low percentage of activated CD4+ cell may contribute to the lower level of serum IgG anti-HP observed in younger infected children. In addition, the CD4+ cell participation during the infection seems to begin after 10 years old, when the immune response becomes similar to that seen in adults.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 62(1):63-70. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated some aspects of the immune response to Helicobacter heilmannii in two mouse strains. Gastritis that was more severe in infected C57BL/6 mice. A proliferative response to H. pylori antigens was observed in splenocytes from H. heilmannii-positive and -negative mice, similar in the positive- and negative-BALB/c mice, but lower in the positive- than in the negative-C57BL/6 animals. A decrease in B cells and an increase in CD4+ cells after stimulation with type I H. pylori antigen and an increase in CD8+ cells after stimulation with type I and II antigens was observed in infected C57BL/6 mice. Conversely, the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and B cells was similar in positive- and negative-BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that the immune response is similar in H. heilmannii and H. pylori infection and strengthened the importance of host and bacterial virulence markers in the immune response to gastric Helicobacter infections.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2002; 47(4):823-30. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although infection with a cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strain is considered a risk factor for the development of duodenal peptic ulcer in adults, this association has not been demonstrated in children. The presence of cagA was investigated by polymerase chain reaction in H. pylori strains isolated from 27 children with duodenal ulcer and 53 without duodenal ulcer. All patients (100%) with duodenal ulcer and 33 (62.3%) without ulcer were colonized by a cagA-positive strain (P=.00007). A cagA-positive status was also associated with a more marked macroscopic gastritis, with a greater inflammatory infiltrate of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells in the antral and oxyntic gastric mucosae and degenerative and regenerative changes of the gastric mucosa. Increased cagA positivity was also associated with increased age, but no association between cagA-positive status and sex was observed.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2000; 181(2):626-30. · 5.78 Impact Factor