T Parkkali

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (26)108.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The current recommendations for active immunization after stem cell transplant (SCT) include 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) from 3 months after transplant, followed by a 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). However, until now, the immune response to PPV23 after PCV7 has not been assessed after SCT. In the EBMT IDWP01 trial, 101 patients received 1 dose of PPV23 at 12 or 18 months, both after 3 doses of PCV7. The efficacy of PPV23 was assessed 1 month later and at 24 months after transplant by the pneumococcal serotype 1 and 5 antibody levels. Serotype 1 and 5 are not included in PCV7. Although the geometric mean concentrations were significantly higher 1 month after PPV23, for both antigens, the response rates (> or =0.15 microg/mL), in the range of 68-94%, were not different between groups independent of the assessment date. One PPV23 dose after 3 PCV7 doses, already known to increase the response to PCV7, also extends the serotype coverage given 12 or 18 months after transplant.
    Vaccine 03/2010; 28(15):2730-4. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunity to poliovirus, diphtheria and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was studied in 16 adult recipients of a bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical sibling donor in order to evaluate the need for revaccinations. T-cell depletion was not done in any case. The donors and patients were studied before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and the patients 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Prior to the BMT 10 of 11 patients were immune (titre ≥ 4) to all vaccine poliovirus types by a standard microneutralization assay. At 12 months after BMT only two of seven patients were immune to all vaccine types, and none had immunity against an antigenically altered poliovirus type 3 strain Finland. The geometric means of antibody titres against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 strain Saukett and strain Finland declined gradually after 1 month postgrafting, being 4.4, 5.4, 3.3, and 1.3 respectively at 12 months after BMT. At 1 year 6 of 11 patients had immunity against diphtheria by a toxin neutralization method, but the antitoxin geometric mean level had decreased to a barely protective level, 0.01 IU/ml. The geometric mean Hib antibody concentration decreased during the first 6 months after BMT and thereafter increased slightly. A significant proportion of BMT recipients lose their protection against polio, diphtheria and Hib, and revaccinations are necessary.
    Apmis 08/2009; 104(1‐6):383 - 388. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, and at least 20% of cases occur within 1 year after transplantation. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has limited efficacy, especially during the first year after transplantation. The immune response to the conjugated vaccines is expected to be better than that to the polysaccharide vaccine, but the optimal timing of vaccination is not defined. Our objective was to show that a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar) was not inferior when first given 3 months after transplantation, compared with when first given 9 months after transplantation. We performed a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority study involving 158 patients from 13 European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers who were randomly allocated at approximately 100 days after myeloablative stem cell transplantation to receive a series of vaccinations (3 doses of PCV7 given 1 month apart) that was started immediately (i.e., 3 months after transplantation) or 6 months later (i.e., 9 months after transplantation). The primary evaluation criterion was the rate of response (antibody level, > or = 0.15 microg/mL for each of the 7 serotypes) at 1 month after the third dose of PCV7. The noninferiority margin was 20%. All patients were followed up for 24 months after transplantation or until death, whichever occurred first. We found that the response rate was not lower after early vaccination (79% [45 of 57 patients]) than after late vaccination (82% [47 of 57 patients]) (difference, -3.5%; 90% confidence interval, -15.6 to 8.6; not significant). We conclude that PCV7 vaccination at 3 months after stem cell transplantation is not inferior to PCV7 vaccination at 9 months after transplantation. Because invasive pneumococcal disease can occur early, we recommend starting the PCV7 vaccination series at 3 months after transplantation to ensure earlier protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the early vaccination may result in only short-lasting response and may not prime for a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine boost as efficiently as the late vaccination.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2009; 48(10):1392-401. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HLA-identical sibling donors of 111 bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients were randomised to receive or not to receive tetanus-diphtheria (T-d), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and inactivated poliovirus (IPV) vaccines 2-10 weeks before BM harvest. Fifty-three (DV+ group) recipients received the graft from a vaccinated donor and 58 (DV- group) from an unvaccinated donor. All recipients were vaccinated with the T-d, Hib and IPV vaccines at 3, 6 and 12 months after BMT. Diphtheria and Hib antibody concentrations were consistently higher in the DV+ than in the DV- group from 6 months post transplantation onwards. The differences were significant at 6 and 13 months for diphtheria and at 12 months for Hib antibody concentrations. Tetanus, PV1, PV2 and PV3 antibody levels were similar in both groups. Patients transplanted from donors with high tetanus, diphtheria and Hib antibody concentrations had higher respective antibody concentrations after BMT than those transplanted from donors with low antibody concentrations. Especially patients whose donors have low-specific antibody concentrations may benefit from donor vaccination with protein and conjugate vaccines.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 03/2007; 39(3):179-88. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hospital charts of 495 adult bone marrow (BM) donors to adult patients were reviewed to determine how necessary it is to collect autologous blood for marrow donation. An autologous transfusion was given to 79% of the donors. The median total volume of marrow harvested was 900 ml (range 450-1350 ml). The median number of nucleated cells harvested was 3.2 x 10(8)/kg patient weight (range 0.9-7.4 x 10(8)/kg patient weight). On the morning following the harvest, the median haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were 104 g/l (79-135 g/l) in the female and 122 g/l (89-151 g/l) in the male donors autotransfused, and 96 g/l (75-127 g/l) in the female and 119 g/l (88-141 g/l) in the male donors not autotransfused. The post-donation Hb was lower than 85 g/l in four and lower than 90 g/l in 25 donors. Of the 25 donors with post-harvest Hb lower than 90 g/l, 23 were females and 14 had received an autologous transfusion. This study shows that, with a few exceptions, it is not necessary to collect autologous blood from healthy BM donors before the marrow harvest. The post-donation Hb concentrations do not decrease to levels detrimental to healthy persons whether autologous blood is transfused or not.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 07/2005; 35(11):1035-9. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are common in allogeneic SCT recipients. We have reviewed our experience of IFI with special reference to candidaemia in 685 adult patients transplanted in 1983-2002. The donor was a matched sibling in 505 patients and an unrelated donor in 180 patients. A BM graft was used in 561 patients and a PB graft in 124 patients. Fluconazole prophylaxis was not used during the study period. Definite or probable IFI was observed in 60 patients (8.7%) with a dominance of Aspergillus infections (46 patients, incidence 6.7%). Candidaemia was found only in nine patients (1.3%). The causative agents were Candida albicans (n=8), C. krusei (n=2), and C. glabrata (n=1); in two patients, two causative agents were found. The median time to the diagnosis of candidaemia was 53 days (range 6-249 days) post transplant. Seven patients were neutropaenic at diagnosis, and four patients had experienced acute GVHD. All patients received antifungal therapy, but only one patient was cured. According to this study, candidaemia was a rare event in allogeneic SCT recipients. Thus, systematic prophylaxis against Candida infections might not be indicated. The prognosis of established infections is still poor due to comorbid conditions, notably GVHD.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 12/2004; 34(10):891-5. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is relatively common in allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Although lungs are the most common site, central nervous system (CNS) involvement is also observed in this setting. We have retrospectively studied 14 cases of CNS aspergillosis found in a cohort of 455 allogeneic SCT recipients (incidence 3%). All patients, except one, had experienced acute graft-versus-host disease treated with high-dose methylprednisolone, and eight patients (57%) had also received ATG. The median time to the diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis was 124 days (range 49-347 days) from SCT. Pulmonary aspergillosis had been diagnosed earlier in four patients (29%). The most common initial symptoms of CNS aspergillosis were convulsions, hemiparesis, and mental alteration. Neuroradiological studies revealed single (two patients) or multiple (seven patients) focal lesions of 0.2-9 cm in diameter. Despite clinical suspicion in many patients, a confirmed diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis was made during life in only one patient. A total of 12 patients (86%) received amphotericin B. Despite therapy, all patients died 0-27 days (median seven days) after the initial CNS symptoms. CNS aspergillosis is not uncommon in allogeneic SCT recipients. Clinical manifestations are usually dramatic and progress quickly. Earlier and more effective treatment of IA is needed to prevent dissemination of infection into the CNS.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 03/2003; 31(3):191-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the prevention of hepatic complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation was studied in a prospective randomized open-label multicenter trial. A total of 242 patients were allocated to receive (n = 123) or not to receive (n = 119) UDCA in the dose of 12 mg/kg/d orally from the day preceding the conditioning until day 90 after transplantation. In the UDCA-treated group a significantly smaller proportion of patients developed a serum bilirubin level exceeding 50 microM (18 of 123 versus 31 of 119, P =.04), and similarly a smaller proportion of patients exceeded the alanine aminotransferase level of 100 U/L. There was no difference in the incidence of veno-occlusive disease of the liver. Compared to the control group, in the UDCA-treated group there was a nonsignificant trend toward a lower overall incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and a significantly lower incidence of grade III to IV acute GVHD (5 of 123 versus 17 of 119, P =.01), stage II to IV liver and intestinal GVHD, and stage III to IV skin GVHD. There was no difference in the incidence of chronic GVHD or in the relapse rate. Among the patients given UDCA, the survival at 1 year was significantly better, 71% versus 55% (P =.02), and the nonrelapse mortality rate was lower, 19% versus 34% (P =.01), than in the control group. There were significantly more deaths in GVHD in the control group. In conclusion, UDCA administration reduced hepatic problems and severe acute GVHD and improved survival. These results suggest a role for UDCA in the prevention of transplant-related complications in allogeneic transplantation.
    Blood 10/2002; 100(6):1977-83. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung problems are common in allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic yield of radiologically guided fine needle lung biopsy (FNLB) in allogeneic SCT recipients with focal pulmonary lesions, a retrospective analysis was carried out. Between 1989 and 1998, radiologists performed a total of 30 FNLBs in 21 allogeneic SCT recipients, guided either by ultrasound (n = 17) or computed tomography (n = 13). The median time from SCT to the first FNLB was 131 days (20-343 days). Prophylactic platelet transfusions were given in 19 procedures (66%). The complications of FNLB included clinically insignificant pneumothorax in four procedures (13%) and self-limiting haemoptysis in one case (3%). The first FNLB was suggestive of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in five patients (24%). Additional clinically useful findings of FNLB included Pseudomonas (two patients) and Nocardia (one patient). The final diagnosis of pulmonary lesions was IPA in 14 patients, immunological lung problems in four patients and other in three patients. Radiologically guided FNLB is feasible in allogeneic SCT recipients and has a low complication rate. The diagnostic yield is high especially for IPA.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 03/2002; 29(4):353-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-four adult BMT recipients transplanted from an HLA-identical sibling donor were randomized to receive meningococcal polysaccharide (Men PS) vaccine either 8 (early group; 22 patients) or 20 (late group; 22 patients) months after BMT. The geometric mean concentrations (GMC) of antibodies to serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (Men A) and serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (Men C), determined by an EIA method, decreased during the first 6 months after BMT but remained at a stable level thereafter. Before vaccination the GMCs of anti-Men A were 1.53 microg/ml and 1.61 microg/ml, but 1 month after vaccination they were significantly higher, 3.46 microg/ml and 6.39 microg/ml, in the early and late groups. The GMCs of anti-Men C increased from 0.37 microg/ml and 0.44 microg/ml before vaccination to 3.31 microg/ml and 4.62 microg/ml at 1 month after vaccination in the early and late groups, respectively. By 6 months after vaccination the GMCs of Men antibodies had decreased to levels of about 50% of those measured at 1 month after vaccination. Two-fold responses to Men A PS were seen in 52% and 74% and to Men C PS in 76% and 89% of the BMT recipients in the early and late groups, respectively. Chronic GVHD had no influence on the vaccination response. In the present study, Men PS vaccine induced good and equal antibody responses to Men A and Men C PSs in allogeneic BMT recipients regardless of timing after BMT. Vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis should be considered, especially in the event of travelling or military service > or = 8 months after BMT.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 02/2001; 27(1):79-84. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pnc PS) antibodies in vitro, a measure of antibody functional activity, usually correlates with specific IgG antibody concentrations measured by an EIA method. In order to investigate the functional activity of specific Pnc PS antibodies, we determined IgG antibodies to Pnc PS type 19F by an EIA method and OPA against Pnc type 19F by a killing assay in a randomized study, where 23 adult allogeneic BMT recipients were vaccinated with Pnc PS vaccine at 8 months (early group) and 21 recipients at 20 months (late group) after transplantation. Serum samples drawn before BMT, before vaccination, and at 1 and 16 months after vaccination were available from 27, 35, 34 and 30 patients, respectively. The geometric mean anti-Pnc 19F concentrations were 4.3, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.3 microg/ml in the early group and 3.8, 0.9, 0.6 and 0.6 microg/ml in the late group before transplantation, before vaccination, and at 1 and 16 months after vaccination, respectively. OPA (titre > or = 8) was found in 10/27, 5/35, 5/34 and 6/30 patients before BMT, before vaccination, and at 1 and 16 months after vaccination, respectively. The specific IgG antibody concentration and OPA correlated with each other before BMT, and in the early group patients before and at 1 month after vaccination. The results demonstrate that after Pnc PS vaccination allogeneic BMT recipients have antibodies with low functional activity to a Pnc PS antigen associated with low specific IgG responses. There is a need to study new Pnc conjugate vaccines in multi-dose schedules for their capacity to elicit higher specific antibody concentrations with high OPA in BMT recipients.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 01/2001; 27(2):207-11. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation. 01/2001; 27:S61-S62.
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been considered poor in allogeneic BMT recipients. We analyzed retrospectively the treatment and outcome of IA diagnosed during life in a recent cohort of 20 allogeneic BMT recipients. All patients were initially treated with amphotericin B (AmB) (conventional 16, liposomal 4). Due to toxicity, conventional AmB was changed to a liposomal preparation in 10 patients. Five patients also received itraconazole and three underwent surgery. Of 19 evaluable patients, two patients achieved a complete response and a partial response was observed in five patients (response rate 37%). The median survival was 37 days after the diagnosis. Only two patients (10%) were cured. The prognosis of allogeneic BMT recipients with IA has remained poor. Although treatment responses are common, immunosuppression aggravated by GVHD and its treatment, as well as the commonly disseminated presentation of IA, seem to be major obstacles to the success of therapy. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 26, 759-762.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 11/2000; 26(7):759-62. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of corticosteroids in the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is not well established. We have conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, single-center study about the effect of adding methylprednisolone (MP) to the widely used prophylactic regimen consisting of cyclosporine A and methotrexate. A total of 108 consecutive patients treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for malignant blood disease were entered into the study; 53 patients were randomized to receive and 55 were randomized not to receive prophylactic MP. The dose of MP was 0.5 mg/kg on days 14 to 20, 1 mg/kg on days 21 to 34, 0.5 mg/kg on days 35 to 48, and thereafter the dose was slowly tapered and the administration discontinued on day 110. In the group given prophylactic MP, the incidence of acute GVHD was lower (19% vs 56%, P =.0001), there was a trend toward a lower incidence of chronic GVHD among low-risk patients (P =.06), and during the first 4 months the time spent at hospital was shorter and there were fewer infections. The total amount of MP given was similar in the study groups because of a higher incidence of acute GVHD and its treatment in the group of patients not given prophylactic MP. There were no significant differences between the study groups in relapse rate or survival. In conclusion, the addition of MP to the combination of cyclosporine and methotrexate markedly reduced the incidence of acute GVHD without causing untoward effects. The timing of corticosteroid administration is probably important for the efficacy.
    Blood 11/2000; 96(7):2391-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate diagnostic aspects of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in allogeneic BMT recipients, the charts of 22 consecutive patients with IA transplanted in 1989-1995 were reviewed. IA was diagnosed 69-466 days (median 131 days) post BMT. In 16 patients (73%), a definite or probable diagnosis of IA was made during life. Respiratory symptoms were the presenting feature in half of the patients followed by neurological symptoms (27%). Chest X-ray revealed single or multiple nodular lesions in 10 patients; cavitation was observed in five patients. Tissue biopsy was the most common method of diagnosis (nine patients: lungs 6, liver 1, subcutaneous tissue 1, brain 1). Five IA cases were detected by nine guided fine needle lung biopsies in eight patients and without complications. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 14 patients with findings suggestive of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in eight cases. Lungs were the most common organ affected (90%) followed by central nervous system (41%). The diagnosis of IA is still difficult, and a large number of patients have advanced infection at diagnosis. Methods for early diagnosis are needed. Patients with a clinical suspicion of IA should be treated vigorously with antifungal agents during the diagnostic work-up.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 05/2000; 25(8):867-71. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a randomized study, 20 adult allogeneic BMT recipients were vaccinated at 6 months and 22 at 18 months after BMT with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (PRP-D), and 23 recipients at 8 months and 21 at 20 months with pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pnc PS) vaccine. IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of Pnc PS and Hib antibodies and avidities of Pnc PS IgG antibodies were determined by EIA in sera from patients with at least a two-fold total antibody response to Pnc type 3, 6B, 19F or PRP-D. The Pnc PS vaccine induced predominantly IgG1 Pnc 3 antibody production. Anti-Pnc 6B and 19F responses were mainly IgG2. The time of the Pnc PS vaccination, at 8 or 20 months after BMT, did not influence the IgG subclass response pattern. The PRP-D vaccine induced predominantly IgG2 anti-Hib production in the patients vaccinated at 6 months after BMT. The patients vaccinated at 18 months produced IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies more evenly. The same patient was able to produce predominantly IgG1 subclass antibodies to one antigen, Pnc 3, 6B, 19F or Hib, and IgG2 antibodies to another. The avidities of anti-Pnc 6B and 19F 1 month after vaccination were similar to those before vaccination, anti-Pnc 3 avidity was lower than before vaccination but matured in 15 months. The IgG subclass distribution and avidity were similar in the patients with and without chronic GVHD. In conclusion, the IgG response to Pnc type 3 was predominantly IgG1 as in infants and IgG2 to PRP-D, Pnc 6B, and 19F as in adults. Early vaccination after BMT or the presence of chronic GVHD did not impair the quality of response to Pnc PS and PRP-D vaccines.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/1999; 24(6):671-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemic patients receiving marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors were randomized to treatment with either busulfan 16 mg/kg (n = 88) or total body irradiation ([TBI] n = 79) in addition to cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. The patients were observed for a period of 5 to 9 years. Busulfan-treated patients had an increased risk of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver (12% v 1%, P =.01) and hemorrhagic cystitis (32% v 10%, P =.003). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was similar in the two groups, but the 7-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 59% in the busulfan-treated group versus 47% in the TBI group (P =.05). Death from GVHD was more common in the busulfan group (22% v 3%, P <.001). Obstructive bronchiolitis occurred in 26% of the busulfan patients but in only 5% of the TBI patients (P <.01). Complete alopecia developed in 8 busulfan patients and partial alopecia in 17, versus five with partial alopecia in the TBI group (P <.001). Cataracts occurred in 5 busulfan-treated patients and 16 TBI patients (P =.02). The incidence of relapse after 7 years was 29% in both groups. Seven-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) in patients with early disease was 21% in the busulfan group and 12% in the TBI group. In patients with more advanced disease, the corresponding figures were 64% and 22%, respectively (P =.004). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) in patients with early disease was 68% in busulfan-treated patients and 66% in TBI patients. However, 7-year LFS in patients with more advanced disease was 17% in the busulfan group versus 49% in the TBI group (P <.01). In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase, 7-year LFS was 72% and 83% in the two groups, respectively.
    Blood 05/1999; 93(7):2196-201. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation. 01/1999; 23:S114-S114.
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-five adult HLA-matched sibling BMT recipients were randomized to receive inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at 6, 8 and 14 months (early group, n = 23) or at 18, 20 and 26 months after BMT (late group, n = 22). Ninety-five percent of the early group patients had protective antibody titres of > or = 4 to poliovirus type 1 (PV1), poliovirus type 2 (PV2) and poliovirus type 3 (PV3) by a microneutralization assay prior to the first vaccination, at 6 months after BMT. The corresponding proportion for the late group patients was only 67% at 18 months. The antibody responses 1 month after each of the three IPV doses were similar in the two vaccination groups, except that four-fold responses occurred more frequently after the first dose to PV2 and PV3 in the late group. All patients had a protective antibody titre to all poliovirus serotypes 1 and 22 months after the third vaccine dose, except one patient in the early group who lacked antibodies to PV3 at 22 months. Acute GVHD accelerated the decrease of poliovirus antibody titres prior to vaccination but had no influence on vaccination response. Chronic GVHD neither influenced the patient's ability to retain poliovirus antibodies prior to vaccination nor impaired responses to vaccinations. A vaccination schedule consisting of three IPV doses was equally immunogenic when started at 6 or 18 months after allogeneic BMT.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/1997; 20(8):663-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-five adult HLA-matched sibling BMT recipients were randomized to receive tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine at 6, 8 and 14 months (early group, n = 23) or at 18, 20 and 26 months after BMT (late group, n = 22). At 6 months after BMT, prior to the first vaccination, 90% of the early group patients had a protective tetanus antibody concentration of > or = 0.1 HU/ml (passive haemagglutination test) but only 70% of the late group patients did so at 18 months after BMT. The antibody responses 1 month after each of the three TT vaccine doses were similar in the two vaccination groups, except that after the first dose, four-fold responses occurred more frequently in the late group. All vaccinated patients achieved the protective antibody concentration of > or = 0.1 HU/ml. In the late group the recipient antibody responses after the first and second vaccine doses correlated with the donor anti-TT level. A tetanus vaccination schedule consisting of three vaccine doses is equally immunogenic when started at 6 or 18 months after BMT. Donor immunity against tetanus may influence recipient responses to TT vaccination.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 05/1997; 19(9):933-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

844 Citations
108.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2010
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Clinical Immunology
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden