T. C. Wagoner

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

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Publications (33)199.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The transmission line circuit model of the Z machine is used extensively to aid in the design and analysis of experiments conducted on Z. The circuit model consists of both 1-D and 2-D networks of transmission lines modeling Z's 36 pulselines, vacuum insulator stack, MITLs, vacuum convolute, and load [1].
    Plasma Science (ICOPS), 2013 Abstracts IEEE International Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Compact tungsten wire array Z -pinches imploded on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories have proven to be a powerful reproducible X-ray source. Wire arrays have also been used in dynamic hohlraum radiation flow experiments and as an intense K-shell source, while the generator has been used extensively for isentropic compression experiments. A problem shared by all these applications is current loss, preventing the ~20-MA drive current from being reliably coupled to the load. This potentially degrades performance, while uncertainties in how this loss is described limit our predictive capability. We present details of a transmission line equivalent circuit model of the Z generator for use in driving 3-D resistive MHD simulations of wire array loads. We describe how power delivery to these loads is affected by multiple current losses and demonstrate how these may be calculated or reconstructed from available electrical data for inclusion in the circuit model. We then demonstrate how the circuit model and MHD load calculation may be combined to infer an additional current loss that has not been directly diagnosed for wire arrays.
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 05/2010; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A B-dot monitor that measures the current 6 cm from the axis of dynamic loads fielded on 107-A multiterawatt pulsed-power accelerators has been developed. The monitor improves upon the multimegampere load-current gauge described in Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 100401 (2008)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.100401. The design of the improved monitor was developed using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that model vacuum electron flow in the transmission line near the monitor. The simulations include important geometric features of the B-dot probe and model the deposition of electron energy within the probe. The simulations show that the improved design reduces by as much as a factor of 5 the electron energy deposition to the interior of the monitor. Data taken on accelerator shots demonstrate that the improved monitor works as well as the original monitor on shots with low-impedance loads, and delivers superior performance on higher-impedance-load shots.
    Review of Modern Physics 01/2010; 13. · 44.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted dielectric-breakdown tests on water subject to a single unipolar pulse. The peak voltages used for the tests range from 5.8 to 6.8 MV; the effective pulse widths range from 0.60 to 1.1 μs; and the effective areas tested range from 1.8×105 to 3.6×106 cm2. The tests were conducted on water-insulated coaxial capacitors. The two electrodes of each capacitor have outer and inner radii of 99 and 56 cm, respectively. Results of the tests are consistent with predictions of the water-dielectric-breakdown relation developed in [ Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9 070401 (2006)].
    Review of Modern Physics 01/2009; 12(1). · 44.98 Impact Factor
  • Physical Review Special Topics-accelerators and Beams - PHYS REV SPEC TOP-AC. 01/2009; 12(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Since the completion of the ZR upgrade of the Z accelerator at the Sandia National Laboratories in the fall of 2007, many shots have been taken on the accelerator, and there has been much opportunity to compare circuit-code predictions of the performance of the machine with actual measurements. We therefore show comparisons of measurements, and describe a full-circuit, 36-line Bertha circuit model of the machine. The model has been used for both short-pulse and long-pulse (tailored pulse) modes of operation. We also present the as-built circuit parameters of the machine and indicate how these were derived. We discuss enhancements to the circuit model that include 2D effects in the water lines, but show that these have little effect on the fidelity of the simulations. Finally, we discuss how further improvements can be made to handle azimuthal coupling of the multiple lines at the vacuum insulator stack.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a semianalytic expression for the total energy loss to a vacuum transmission-line electrode operated at high lineal current densities. (We define the lineal current density jℓ≡B/μ0 to be the current per unit electrode width, where B is the magnetic field at the electrode surface and μ0 is the permeability of free space.) The expression accounts for energy loss due to Ohmic heating, magnetic diffusion, j×B work, and the increase in the transmission line’s vacuum inductance due to motion of the vacuum-electrode boundary. The sum of these four terms constitutes the Poynting fluence at the original location of the boundary. The expression assumes that (i) the current distribution in the electrode can be approximated as one-dimensional and planar; (ii) the current I(t)=0 for t<0, and I(t)∝t for t≥0; (iii) jℓ≤10 MA/cm; and (iv) the current-pulse width is between 50 and 300 ns. Under these conditions we find that, to first order, the total energy lost per unit electrode-surface area is given by Wt(t)=αtβBγ(t)+ζtκBλ(t), where B(t) is the nominal magnetic field at the surface. The quantities α, β, γ, ζ, κ, and λ are material constants that are determined by normalizing the expression for Wt(t) to the results of 1D magnetohydrodynamic MACH2 simulations. For stainless-steel electrodes operated at current densities between 0.5 and 10 MA/cm, we find that α=3.36×105, β=1/2, γ=2, ζ=4.47×104, κ=5/4, and λ=4 (in SI units). An effective time-dependent resistance, appropriate for circuit simulations of pulsed-power accelerators, is derived from Wt(t). Resistance-model predictions are compared to energy-loss measurements made with stainless-steel electrodes operated at peak lineal current densities as high as 12 MA/cm (and peak currents as high as 23 MA). The predictions are consistent with the measurements, to within experimental uncertainties. We also find that a previously used electrode-energy-loss model overpredicts the measurements by as much as an order of magnitude.
    Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 12/2008; 11(12). · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the successful completion of its refurbishment the Z machine at Sandia is now routinely operating with currents over 26 MA into various loads. Now that the machine is operating we can measure current and voltage at various locations throughout the machine and compare with circuit code predictions. These measurements have led to improvements in the model that provide a more accurate predictive capability. In this paper we describe the full-machine circuit model of Z, and indicate how machine parameters are derived. Many were determined with commercially-available field calculation software, but parameters for switches and other non-linear elements were determined empirically. We show comparisons of circuit code predictions with machine performance. Finally, we show where improvements to the model can yet be made.
    IEEE International Power Modulators and High Voltage Conference, Proceedings of the 2008; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Omega balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Omega cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two signals from a pair are not combined in a balun; they are instead numerically processed for common-mode-noise rejection after digitization. All the current monitors are calibrated on a 76-cm-diameter axisymmetric radial transmission line that is driven by a 10-kA current pulse. The reference current is measured by a current-viewing resistor (CVR). The stack voltage monitors are also differential-output gauges, consisting of one 1.8-cm-diameter D-dot sensor and one null sensor. Hence, each voltage monitor is also a differential detector with two output signals, processed as described above. The voltage monitors are calibrated in situ at 1.5 MV on dedicated accelerator shots with a short-circuit load. Faraday's law of induction is used to generate the reference voltage: currents are obtained from calibrated outer-MITL B-dot monitors, and inductances from the system geometry. In this way, both current and voltage measurements are traceable to a single CVR. Dependable and consistent measurements are thus obtained with this system of calibrated diagnostics. On accelerator shots that deliver 22 MA to a low-impedance z-pinch load, the peak lineal current densities at the stack, outer-MITL, and inner-MITL monitor locations are 0.5, 1, and 58MA/m, respectively. On such shots the peak currents measured at these three locations agree to within 1%.
    Physical Review Special Topics-accelerators and Beams - PHYS REV SPEC TOP-AC. 01/2008; 11(10).
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    ABSTRACT: Now that the refurbishment of the Z machine at Sandia is complete we are routinely operating with currents over 26 MA into various loads. With routine operation we are able to measure current and voltage throughout the machine and compare with circuit code predictions. These measurements have motivated improvements to the original model to include two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sub-circuits. In this paper we describe a full-machine (36 module), one-dimensional (1D) circuit model of Z using the Bertha code developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. We also describe a model that uses 2D sub-modules. In addition, we discuss plans for implementing a 3D circuit model to allow investigating azimuthal effects that can be important for tailoring the rise time, shape, and length of the Z output pulse. Pulse tailoring on Z is achieved by staggering the timing of the various pulsed-forming modules, and by operating individual modules in either long or short-pulse modes. Since the individual lines combine at a large diameter and are separated azimuthally, transit-time effects can be important for determining transient field enhancements at the vacuum insulator and in the vacuum transmission lines, as well as pulse shape. Finally, we compare the 1D and 2D models with data, and provide predictions for both short and long pulse modes for various load configurations.
    High Power Particle Beams (BEAMS), 2008 17th International Conference on; 01/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Now that the refurbishment of the Z machine at Sandia is complete we are routinely operating with currents over 26 MA into various loads. With routine operation we are able to measure current and voltage throughout the machine and compare with circuit code predictions. These measurements have motivated improvements to the original model to include two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sub-circuits. In this paper we describe a full-machine (36 module), one-dimensional (1D) circuit model of Z using the Bertha code developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. We also describe a model that uses 2D sub-modules. In addition, we discuss plans for implementing a 3D circuit model to allow investigating azimuthal effects that can be important for tailoring the rise time, shape, and length of the Z output pulse. Pulse tailoring on Z is achieved by staggering the timing of the various pulsed-forming modules, and by operating individual modules in either long or short-pulse modes. Since the individual lines combine at a large diameter and are separated azimuthally, transit-time effects can be important for determining transient field enhancements at the vacuum insulator and in the vacuum transmission lines, as well as pulse shape. Finally, we compare the 1D and 2D models with data, and provide predictions for both short and long pulse modes for various load configurations.
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The Z pulsed power driver [1] at Sandia National Laboratories is used to develop high energy density z-pinch x-ray sources for inertial confinement fusion research and radiation effects testing, and to drive megabar pressures in material samples for equation of state studies. The entire pulsed power system is in the process of being replaced, improving reliability and increasing the energy delivered to the load.
    Pulsed Power Conference, 2007 16th IEEE International; 07/2007
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed an accelerator architecture that can serve as the basis of the design of petawatt-class z-pinch drivers. The architecture has been applied to the design of two z-pinch accelerators, each of which can be contained within a 104-m-diameter cylindrical tank. One accelerator is driven by slow (∼1 μs) Marx generators, which are a mature technology but which necessitate significant pulse compression to achieve the short pulses (≪1 μs) required to drive z pinches. The other is powered by linear transformer drivers (LTDs), which are less mature but produce much shorter pulses than conventional Marxes. Consequently, an LTD-driven accelerator promises to be (at a given pinch current and implosion time) more efficient and reliable. The Marx-driven accelerator produces a peak electrical power of 500 TW and includes the following components: (i) 300 Marx generators that comprise a total of 1.8×104 capacitors, store 98 MJ, and erect to 5 MV; (ii) 600 water-dielectric triplate intermediate-store transmission lines, which also serve as pulse-forming lines; (iii) 600 5-MV laser-triggered gas switches; (iv) three monolithic radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, with triplate geometries and exponential impedance profiles; (v) a 6-level 5.5-m-diameter 15-MV vacuum insulator stack; (vi) six magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs); and (vii) a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute that adds the output currents of the six MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a z-pinch load. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 52 MA to a 10-mm-length z pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 57 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. The LTD-driven accelerator includes monolithic radial transformers and a MITL system similar to those described above, but does not include intermediate-store transmission lines, multimegavolt gas switches, or a laser trigger system. Instead, this accelerator is driven by 210 LTD modules that include a total of 1×106 capacitors and 5×105 200-kV electrically triggered gas switches. The LTD accelerator stores 182 MJ and produces a peak electrical power of 1000 TW. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 68 MA to a pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 75 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. Conceptually straightforward upgrades to these designs would deliver even higher pinch currents and faster implosions.
    Review of Modern Physics 03/2007; 10(3). · 44.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a relativistic-fluid model of the flow-electron plasma in a steady-state one-dimensional magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). The model assumes that the electrons are collisional and, as a result, drift toward the anode. The model predicts that in the limit of fully developed collisional flow, the relation between the voltage Va, anode current Ia, cathode current Ik, and geometric impedance Z0 of a 1D planar MITL can be expressed as Va=IaZ0h(chi), where h(chi)≡[(chi+1)/4(chi-1)]1/2-lnf ⌊chi+(chi2-1)1/2⌋/2chi(chi-1) and chi≡Ia/Ik. The relation is valid when Va&gsim;1MV. In the minimally insulated limit, the anode current Ia,minf =1.78Va/Z0, the electron-flow current If,minf =1.25Va/Z0, and the flow impedance Zf,minf =0.588Z0. {The electron-flow current If≡Ia-Ik. Following Mendel and Rosenthal [Phys. Plasmas 2, 1332 (1995)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.871345], we define the flow impedance Zf as Va/(Ia2-Ik2)1/2.} In the well-insulated limit (i.e., when Ia&Gt;Ia,minf ), the electron-flow current If=9Va2/8IaZ02 and the flow impedance Zf=2Z0/3. Similar results are obtained for a 1D collisional MITL with coaxial cylindrical electrodes, when the inner conductor is at a negative potential with respect to the outer, and Z0&lsim;40Omega. We compare the predictions of the collisional model to those of several MITL models that assume the flow electrons are collisionless. We find that at given values of Va and Z0, collisions can significantly increase both Ia,minf and If,minf above the values predicted by the collisionless models, and decrease Zf,minf . When Ia&Gt;Ia,minf , we find that, at given values of Va, Z0, and Ia, collisions can significantly increase If and decrease Zf. Since the steady-state collisional model is valid only when the drift of electrons toward the anode has had sufficient time to establish fully developed collisional flow, and collisionless models assume there is no net electron drift toward the anode, we expect these two types of models to provide theoretical bounds on Ia, If, and Zf.
    Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 09/2006; 9. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed an empirical electrical-breakdown relation that can be used to design large-area water-insulated pulsed-power systems. Such systems often form an integral part of multiterawatt pulsed-power accelerators, and may be incorporated in future petawatt-class machines. We find that complete dielectric failure is likely to occur in water between a significantly field-enhanced anode and a less-enhanced cathode when Eptaueff0.330±0.026=0.135±0.009. In this expression Ep≡Vp/d is the peak value in time of the spatially averaged electric field between the anode and cathode (in MV/cm), Vp is the peak voltage across the electrodes, d is the distance between the anode and cathode, and taueff is the temporal width (in mus) of the voltage pulse at 63% of peak. This relation is based on 25 measurements for which 1
    Reviews of Modern Physics - REV MOD PHYS. 01/2006; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed wire-array z -pinch scaling relations for plasma-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments. The relations can be applied to the design of z -pinch accelerators for high-fusion-yield (approximately 0.4 GJ/shot) and inertial-fusion-energy (approximately 3 GJ/shot) research. We find that (delta(a)/delta(RT)) proportional (m/l)1/4 (Rgamma)(-1/2), where delta(a) is the imploding-sheath thickness of a wire-ablation-dominated pinch, delta(RT) is the sheath thickness of a Rayleigh-Taylor-dominated pinch, m is the total wire-array mass, l is the axial length of the array, R is the initial array radius, and gamma is a dimensionless functional of the shape of the current pulse that drives the pinch implosion. When the product Rgamma is held constant the sheath thickness is, at sufficiently large values of m/l, determined primarily by wire ablation. For an ablation-dominated pinch, we estimate that the peak radiated x-ray power P(r) proportional (I/tau(i))(3/2)Rlphigamma, where I is the peak pinch current, tau(i) is the pinch implosion time, and phi is a dimensionless functional of the current-pulse shape. This scaling relation is consistent with experiment when 13 MA < or = I < or = 20 MA, 93 ns < or = tau(i) < or = 169 ns, 10 mm < or = R < or = 20 mm, 10 mm < or = l < or = 20 mm, and 2.0 mg/cm < or = m/l < or = 7.3 mg/cm. Assuming an ablation-dominated pinch and that Rlphigamma is held constant, we find that the x-ray-power efficiency eta(x) congruent to P(r)/P(a) of a coupled pinch-accelerator system is proportional to (tau(i)P(r)(7/9 ))(-1), where P(a) is the peak accelerator power. The pinch current and accelerator power required to achieve a given value of P(r) are proportional to tau(i), and the requisite accelerator energy E(a) is proportional to tau2(i). These results suggest that the performance of an ablation-dominated pinch, and the efficiency of a coupled pinch-accelerator system, can be improved substantially by decreasing the implosion time tau(i). For an accelerator coupled to a double-pinch-driven hohlraum that drives the implosion of an ICF fuel capsule, we find that the accelerator power and energy required to achieve high-yield fusion scale as tau(i)0.36 and tau(i)1.36, respectively. Thus the accelerator requirements decrease as the implosion time is decreased. However, the x-ray-power and thermonuclear-yield efficiencies of such a coupled system increase with tau(i). We also find that increasing the anode-cathode gap of the pinch from 2 to 4 mm increases the requisite values of P(a) and E(a) by as much as a factor of 2.
    Physical Review E 09/2005; 72(2 Pt 2):026404. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Z driver at Sandia National Laboratories delivers one to two megajoules of electromagnetic energy inside its ~10 cm radius final feed in 100 ns. The high current (~20 MA) at small diameter produces magnetic pressures well above yield strengths for metals. The metal conductors stay in place due to inertia long enough to deliver current to the load. Within milliseconds however, fragments of metal escape the load region at high velocity. Much of the hardware and diagnostics inside the vacuum chamber is protected from this debris by blast shields with small view ports, and fast-closing valves. The water-vacuum insulator requires different protection because the transmission line debris shield should not significantly raise the inductance or perturb the self- magnetically insulated electron flow. This report shows calculations and results from a design intended to protect the insulator assembly.
    Pulsed Power Conference, 2005 IEEE; 07/2005
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    ABSTRACT: The ZR upgrade to the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories will replace much of the power flow components. The single most massive of these components is the 1.6 meter diameter, four-feed MITL system. This 14.5 Ton assembly transports electromagnetic energy from the vacuum interface to the load. The MITLs must cany 30 MA total with 99% reliability. Optimum performance requires careful control of the transmission line gaps. The MITLs must support the load while maintaining strict gap tolerance under their own weight and the weight of diagnostic assemblies. Dynamically they must be robust enough to withstand accelerations and impacts similar if not greater than those on Z today. Stress and deflection calculations will be shown for the self-deflection, diagnostic loading, and dynamic motion present in the system. The MITLs are built in multiple annular sections to reduce cost and allow replacement of damaged pieces. Reliable power delivery demands that the multi-piece MITLs be joined with current-carrying contacts that do not introduce plasma or neutrals into the power flow gap. The design of the ZR MITL system and the design of the various current contacts will be shown. The current contacts were designed to maintain a continuous static pressure on soft copper gaskets to achieve intimate conductor contact. Testing on Z will be done in order to validate FEA pressure calculations as well as the current contact concept itself.
    Pulsed Power Conference, 2005 IEEE; 07/2005
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a series of experiments designed to measure the flashover strength of various azimuthally symmetric 45° vacuum-insulator configurations. The principal objective of the experiments was to identify a configuration with a flashover strength greater than that of the standard design, which consists of a 45° polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) insulator between flat electrodes. The thickness d and circumference C of the insulators tested were held constant at 4.318 and 95.74 cm, respectively. The peak voltage applied to the insulators ranged from 0.8 to 2.2 MV. The rise time of the voltage pulse was 40 60 ns; the effective pulse width [as defined in Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 7, 070401 (2004), PRABFM, 1098-4402, 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.7.070401] was on the order of 10 ns. Experiments conducted with flat aluminum electrodes demonstrate that the flashover strength of a crosslinked polystyrene (Rexolite) insulator is (18±7)% higher than that of PMMA. Experiments conducted with a Rexolite insulator and an anode plug, i.e., an extension of the anode into the insulator, demonstrate that a plug can increase the flashover strength by an additional (44±11)%. The results are consistent with the Anderson model of anode-initiated flashover, and confirm previous measurements. It appears that a Rexolite insulator with an anode plug can, in principle, increase the peak electromagnetic power that can be transmitted across a vacuum interface by a factor of [(1.18)(1.44)]2=2.9 over that which can be achieved with the standard design.
    Review of Modern Physics 05/2005; · 44.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations for 20-MA wire-array z pinches of an extended wire ablation period of 57%+/-3% of the stagnation time of the array and non-thin-shell implosion trajectories. These experiments were performed with 20-mm-diam wire arrays used for the double- z -pinch inertial confinement fusion experiments [M. E. Cuneo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004 (2002)] on the Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. This array has the smallest wire-wire gaps typically used at 20 MA (209 microm ). The extended ablation period for this array indicates that two-dimensional (r-z) thin-shell implosion models that implicitly assume wire ablation and wire-to-wire merger into a shell on a rapid time scale compared to wire acceleration are fundamentally incorrect or incomplete for high-wire-number, massive (>2 mg/cm) , single, tungsten wire arrays. In contrast to earlier work where the wire array accelerated from its initial position at approximately 80% of the stagnation time, our results show that very late acceleration is not a universal aspect of wire array implosions. We also varied the ablation period between 46%+/-2% and 71%+/-3% of the stagnation time, for the first time, by scaling the array diameter between 40 mm (at a wire-wire gap of 524 mum ) and 12 mm (at a wire-wire gap of 209 microm ), at a constant stagnation time of 100+/-6 ns . The deviation of the wire-array trajectory from that of a thin shell scales inversely with the ablation rate per unit mass: f(m) proportional[dm(ablate)/dt]/m(array). The convergence ratio of the effective position of the current at peak x-ray power is approximately 3.6+/-0.6:1 , much less than the > or = 10:1 typically inferred from x-ray pinhole camera measurements of the brightest emitting regions on axis, at peak x-ray power. The trailing mass at the array edge early in the implosion appears to produce wings on the pinch mass profile at stagnation that reduces the rate of compression of the pinch. The observation of precursor pinch formation, trailing mass, and trailing current indicates that all the mass and current do not assemble simultaneously on axis. Precursor and trailing implosions appear to impact the efficiency of the conversion of current (driver energy) to x rays. An instability with the character of an m = 0 sausage grows rapidly on axis at stagnation, during the rise time of pinch power. Just after peak power, a mild m = 1 kink instability of the pinch occurs which is correlated with the higher compression ratio of the pinch after peak power and the decrease of the power pulse. Understanding these three-dimensional, discrete-wire implosion characteristics is critical in order to efficiently scale wire arrays to higher currents and powers for fusion applications.
    Physical Review E 04/2005; 71(4 Pt 2):046406. · 2.31 Impact Factor