ABSTRACT: We sought to delineate the angiographic findings, clinical correlates and in-hospital outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction.
Patients with CS complicating acute myocardial infarction carry a grave prognosis. Detailed angiographic findings in a large, prospectively identified cohort of patients with CS are currently lacking.
We compared the clinical characteristics, angiographic findings, and in-hospital outcomes of 717 patients selected to undergo angiography and 442 not selected, overall and by shock etiology: left or right ventricular failure versus mechanical complications.
Patients who underwent angiography had lower baseline risk and a better hemodynamic profile than those who did not. Overall, 15.5% of the patients had significant left main lesions on angiography, and 53.4% had three-vessel disease, with higher rates of both for those with ventricular failure, compared with patients who had mechanical complications. Among patients who underwent angiography, those with ventricular failure had significantly lower in-hospital mortality than patients with mechanical complications (45.2% vs. 57.0%; p = 0.021). Importantly, for patients with ventricular failure, in-hospital mortality also correlated with disease severity: 35.0% for no or single-vessel disease versus 50.8% for three-vessel disease. Furthermore, mortality was associated with the culprit lesion location (78.6% in left main lesion, 69.7% in saphenous vein graft lesions, 42.4% in circumflex lesions, 42.3% in left anterior descending lesions, and 37.4% in right coronary artery lesions), and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade (46.5% in TIMI 0/1, 49.4% in TIMI 2 and 26% in TIMI 3).
Patients who underwent angiographic study in the SHOCK Trial Registry had a more benign cardiac risk profile, more favorable hemodynamic findings and lower in-hospital mortality than those for whom angiograms were not obtained. Patients with CS caused by ventricular failure had more severe atherosclerosis, and a different distribution of culprit vessel involvement but lower in-hospital mortality, than those with mechanical complications. Overall in-hospital survival correlates with the extent of coronary artery obstructions, location of culprit lesion and baseline coronary TIMI flow grade.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2000; 36(3 Suppl A):1077-83. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the role of diabetes mellitus in cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the SHOCK Trial Registry.
The characteristics, outcomes and optimal treatment of diabetic patients with CS complicating AMI have not been well described.
Baseline characteristics, clinical and hemodynamic measures, treatment variables, shock etiologies and comorbid conditions were compared for 379 diabetic and 784 nondiabetic patients. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between diabetes and in-hospital mortality, after adjustment for baseline differences.
Diabetics were less likely than nondiabetics to undergo thrombolysis (28% vs. 37%; p = 0.002) or attempted revascularization (40% vs. 49%; p = 0.008). The survival benefit for diabetics selected for percutaneous or surgical revascularization (55% vs. 19% without revascularization) was similar to that for nondiabetics (59% vs. 25%). Overall unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for diabetics (67% vs. 58%; p = 0.007), but diabetes was only a borderline predictor of mortality after adjustment for baseline and treatment differences (odds ratio for death, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.84; p = 0.051).
Diabetics with CS complicating AMI have a higher-risk profile at baseline, but after adjustment, diabetics have an in-hospital survival rate that is only marginally lower than that of nondiabetics. Diabetics who undergo revascularization derive a survival benefit similar to that of nondiabetics.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2000; 36(3 Suppl A):1097-103. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We sought to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by rupture of the ventricular free wall or tamponade versus shock from other causes.
Free-wall rupture is a recognized cause of mortality in patients with acute MI. Some of these patients present subacutely, which provides an opportunity for intervention. Recognition of factors that distinguish them from the overall shock cohort would be beneficial.
The international SHOCK Trial Registry enrolled patients concurrently with the randomized SHOCK Trial. Thirty-six centers consecutively enrolled all patients with suspected CS after MI, regardless of trial eligibility.
Of the 1,048 patients studied, 28 (2.7%) had free-wall rupture or tamponade. These patients had less pulmonary edema, less diabetes, less prior MI, and less prior congestive heart failure (all p < 0.05). They more often had new Q waves in two or more leads (51.9% vs. 31.5%, p < 0.04), but MI location and time to shock onset after MI did not differ. Of patients with rupture or tamponade, 75% had pericardial effusions. No hemodynamic characteristics identified patients with rupture/tamponade. Most patients with rupture/tamponade had surgery and/or pericardiocentesis (27/28); their in-hospital survival rate was identical to that of the group overall (39.3%). Women and older patients with rupture/tamponade tended to survive intervention less often.
Free-wall rupture and tamponade may present as CS after MI, and survival after intervention is similar to that of the overall shock cohort. All patients with CS after MI should have echocardiography in order to detect subacute rupture or tamponade and initiate appropriate interventions.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2000; 36(3 Suppl A):1117-22. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to define the outcomes of patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods for early identification and optimal treatment of such patients have not been defined.
The SHOCK Trial Registry enrolled 1,190 patients with CS complicating AMI. We compared 1) the cohort with severe mitral regurgitation (MR, n = 98) to the cohort with predominant left ventricular failure (LVF, n = 879), and 2) the MR patients who underwent valve surgery (n = 43) to those who did not (n = 51).
Shock developed early after MI in both the MR (median 12.8 h) and LVF (median 6.2 h) cohorts. The MR patients were more often female (52% vs. 37%, p = 0.004) and less likely to have ST elevation at shock diagnosis (41% vs. 63%, p < 0.001). The MR index MI was more frequently inferior (55% vs. 44%, p = 0.039) or posterior (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.002) than that of LVF and much less frequently anterior (34% vs. 59%, p < 0.001). Despite having higher mean LVEF (0.37 vs. 0.30, p = 0.001) the MR cohort had similar in-hospital mortality (55% vs. 61%, p = 0.277). The majority of MR patients did not undergo mitral valve surgery. Those undergoing surgery exhibited higher mean LVEF than those not undergoing surgery; nevertheless, 39% died in hospital.
The data highlight opportunities for early identification and intervention to potentially decrease the devastating mortality and morbidity of severe post-myocardial infarction MR.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2000; 36(3 Suppl A):1104-9. · 14.16 Impact Factor