[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved therapeutic procedure that exerts cytotoxic activity toward tumor cells by inducing production of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen. PDT leads to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules, including proteins that undergo multiple modifications such as fragmentation, cross-linking, and carbonylation that result in protein unfolding and aggregation. Because the major mechanism for elimination of carbonylated proteins is their degradation by proteasomes, we hypothesized that a combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors might lead to accumulation of carbonylated proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), aggravated ER stress, and potentiated cytotoxicity toward tumor cells. We observed that Photofrin-mediated PDT leads to robust carbonylation of cellular proteins and induction of unfolded protein response. Pretreatment of tumor cells with three different proteasome inhibitors, including bortezomib, MG132, and PSI, gave increased accumulation of carbonylated and ubiquitinated proteins in PDT-treated cells. Proteasome inhibitors effectively sensitized tumor cells of murine (EMT6 and C-26) as well as human (HeLa) origin to PDT-mediated cytotoxicity. Significant retardation of tumor growth with 60% to 100% complete responses was observed in vivo in two different murine tumor models (EMT6 and C-26) when PDT was combined with either bortezomib or PSI. Altogether, these observations indicate that combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors leads to potentiated antitumor effects. The results of these studies are of immediate clinical application because bortezomib is a clinically approved drug that undergoes extensive clinical evaluations for the treatment of solid tumors.
Cancer Research 06/2009; 69(10):4235-43. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones are ligands of PPAR-gamma, a member of the nuclear receptor family. These drugs have shown promising pre-clinical activity in tumor models but clinical studies failed to confirm their beneficial effect. We have studied the in vitro antitumor effects of a combination of ciglitazone, a thiazolidinedione drug, and lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. We observed a marked synergism in several different tumor cell lines resulting from both inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that combining PPAR-gamma agonists with statins can produce significant antitumor effects.
International Journal of Oncology 02/2008; 32(1):249-55. · 2.77 Impact Factor