Suzanne Segler

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (15)115.39 Total impact

  • Melissa Tobin-D'angelo, Suzanne Segler
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Shigella is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis but is uncommonly identified as a cause of bacteremia. Associated demographic, clinical, and risk factors are not well described. Methods: Patients with Shigella isolated from any site were identified through population-based active surveillance in Georgia (EIP/FoodNet) from 2002 –2012. Duplicate isolates identified within 30 days of the initial isolate were excluded. Demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical information was collected using a standard case report form. More detailed laboratory and exposure data were collected from 2005-2012. HIV-infection status was available for bacteremic patients only. Shigella identification, speciation and serotyping were performed at the State laboratory. Bacteremic patients were compared with patients with Shigella isolated only from stool. Because most isolates were either S. flexneri (SF) or S. sonnei (SS), other species were excluded from analysis. Results: During 2002-2012, 11,262 Shigella infections, of which 72 were isolated from blood, were identified. The median age of bacteremic patients was 29 years (range 0 – 67); the male-female ratio was 2.4:1. Association with international travel or outbreaks was rare among bacteremic patients. Bacteremic patients were more likely to be black (58/71 [82%] vs. 3882/9130 [43%]; p < 0.01) and male (51/72 [71%)] vs. 5350/10746 [50%]; p<0.01) than patients with only stool isolates. SS 35/72 (49%) and SF 30/72 (42%) species were both common in bacteremic patients while stool only infections were predominantly SS: 8966/10,770 (83%); SF: 950/10,770 (9%) (p<0.01). Among serotyped SF isolates, SF 2A was significantly associated with bacteremia (7/27[26%] vs 0/482[0%]; <0.01). Thirty-seven (51%) of the 72 bacteremic patients were HIV-infected. Among bacteremic patients with known species, SF occurred in 28/37 (76%) HIV-infected vs. 2/28 (7%) with negative or unknown HIV status (p<0.01). Conclusion: Male gender and black race were associated with Shigella bacteremia. More than half occurred in HIV-infected individuals. SF, in particular SF 2A, was associated with bacteremia. Both host and pathogen factors may lead to Shigella bacteremia.
    IDWeek 2013 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Understanding laboratory practices is essential to interpreting incidence and trends in reported campylobacteriosis over time and provides a baseline for evaluating the increasing use of culture-independent diagnostic methods for Campylobacter infection. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts surveillance for laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections. In 2005, FoodNet conducted a survey of clinical laboratories to describe routine practices used for isolation and identification of Campylobacter. A profile was assigned to laboratories based on complete responses to key survey questions that could impact the recovery and isolation of Campylobacter from stool specimens. Of 411 laboratories testing on-site for Campylobacter, 97% used only culture methods. Among those responding to the individual questions, nearly all used transport medium (97%) and incubated at 42°C (94%); however, most deviated from existing guidelines in other areas: 68% held specimens in transport medium at room temperature before plating, 51% used Campy blood agar plate medium, 52% read plates at <72 hours of incubation, and 14% batched plates before placing them in a microaerobic environment. In all, there were 106 testing algorithms among 214 laboratories with a complete profile; only 16 laboratories were fully adherent to existing guidelines. Although most laboratories used culture-based methods, procedures differed widely and most did not adhere to existing guidelines, likely resulting in underdiagnosis. Given the availability of new culture-independent testing methods, these data highlight a clear need to develop best practice recommendations for Campylobacter infection diagnostic testing.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 54 Suppl 5:S440-5. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections cause acute diarrheal illness and sometimes life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Escherichia coli O157 is the most common STEC, although the number of reported non-O157 STEC infections is growing with the increased availability and use of enzyme immunoassay testing, which detects the presence of Shiga toxin in stool specimens. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of STEC infection facilitates appropriate therapy and may improve patient outcomes. We mailed 2400 surveys to physicians in 8 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites to assess their knowledge and practices regarding STEC testing, treatment, and reporting, and their interpretation of Shiga toxin test results. Of 1102 completed surveys, 955 were included in this analysis. Most (83%) physicians reported often or always ordering a culture of bloody stool specimens; 49% believed that their laboratory routinely tested for STEC O157, and 30% believed that testing for non-O157 STEC was also included in a routine stool culture. Forty-two percent of physicians were aware that STEC, other than O157, can cause HUS, and 34% correctly interpreted a positive Shiga toxin test result. All STEC knowledge-related factors were strongly associated with correct interpretation of a positive Shiga toxin test result. Identification and management of STEC infection depends on laboratories testing for STEC and physicians ordering and correctly interpreting results of Shiga toxin tests. Although overall knowledge of STEC was low, physicians who had more knowledge were more likely to correctly interpret a Shiga toxin test result. Physician knowledge of STEC may be modifiable through educational interventions.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 54 Suppl 5:S446-52. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a life-threatening illness usually caused by infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157). We evaluated the age-specific rate of HUS and death among persons with STEC O157 infection and the risk factors associated with developing HUS. STEC O157 infections and HUS cases were reported from 8 sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network during 2000-2006. For each case of STEC O157 infection and HUS, demographic and clinical outcomes were reported. The proportion of STEC O157 infections resulting in HUS was determined. A total of 3464 STEC O157 infections were ascertained; 218 persons (6.3%) developed HUS. The highest proportion of HUS cases (15.3%) occurred among children aged <5 years. Death occurred in 0.6% of all patients with STEC O157 infection and in 4.6% of those with HUS. With or without HUS, persons aged 60 years had the highest rate of death due to STEC O157 infection. Twelve (3.1%) of 390 persons aged 60 years died, including 5 (33.3%) of 15 persons with HUS and 7 (1.9%) of 375 without. Among children aged <5 years, death occurred in 4 (3.0%) of those with HUS and 2 (0.3%) of those without. Young children and females had an increased risk of HUS after STEC O157 infection. With or without HUS, elderly persons had the highest proportion of deaths associated with STEC O157 infection. These data support recommendations for aggressive supportive care of young children and the elderly early during illness due to STEC O157.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2009; 49(10):1480-5. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Listeriosis is a leading cause of death among patients with foodborne diseases in the United States. Monitoring disease incidence is an important element of listeriosis surveillance and control. We conducted population-based surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from normally sterile sites at all clinical diagnostic laboratories in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network from 1996 through 2003. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed invasive listeriosis decreased by 24% from 1996 through 2003; pregnancy-associated disease decreased by 37%, compared with a decrease of 23% for patients > or =50 years old. The highest incidence was reported among Hispanic persons from 1997 through 2001. Differences in incidence by age group and ethnicity may be explained by dietary preferences. The marked decrease in the incidence of listeriosis may be related to the decrease in the prevalence of L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat foods since 1996. The crude incidence in 2003 of 3.1 cases per 1 million population approaches the government's Healthy People objective of 2.5 cases per 1 million population by 2005. Further decreases in listeriosis incidence will require continued efforts of industry and government to reduce contamination of food and continued efforts to educate consumers and clinicians.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 03/2007; 44(4):513-20. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes has been estimated to cause >2500 illnesses and 500 deaths annually in the United States. Efforts to reduce foodborne listeriosis have focused on foods frequently implicated in outbreaks. Potential sources for L. monocytogenes infection not associated with outbreaks remain poorly understood. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network conducts surveillance for culture-confirmed listeriosis at clinical laboratories in 9 states. After excluding outbreak-associated cases, we attempted to enroll eligible case patients with L. monocytogenes infection in a case-control study from 2000 through 2003. Control subjects were recruited through health care providers and were matched to case patients by state, age, and immunosuppression status. Data were collected about exposures occurring in the 4 weeks before specimen collection from the case patients. Of the 249 case patients with L. monocytogenes infection, only 12 (5%) had cases that were associated with outbreaks; 6 other patients were ineligible for other reasons. Of 231 eligible case patients, 169 (73%) were enrolled in the study. We classified 28 case patients as having pregnancy-associated cases. We enrolled 376 control subjects. In multivariable analysis, L. monocytogenes infection was associated with eating melons at a commercial establishment (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.0) and eating hummus prepared in a commercial establishment (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.1). Most cases of L. monocytogenes infection were not associated with outbreaks. Reducing the burden of foodborne listeriosis may require interventions directed at retail environments and at foods, such as melons and hummus, that are not commonly recognized as high risk. Because of the severity of listeriosis, pregnant women and other persons at risk may wish to avoid eating these newly implicated foods.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 03/2007; 44(4):521-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Newport with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MDR-AmpC) is becoming increasingly common in its food animal reservoirs and in humans. Few data exist on rates of antimicrobial use or differences in clinical outcomes in persons infected with MDR-AmpC or other Salmonella strains. We conducted a case-comparison analysis of data from a multistate population-based case-control study to identify antimicrobial treatment choices and differences in clinical outcomes in those infected with MDRAmpC compared to pansusceptible S. Newport. Of isolates from 215 laboratory-confirmed S. Newport cases, 54 (25%) were MDR-AmpC, 146 (68%) were pansusceptible, and 15 (7%) had other resistance patterns; 146 (68%) patients with S. Newport were treated with antimicrobial agents and 66 (33%) were hospitalized. Over two-thirds of cases at low-risk for serious complications received antimicrobial therapy, most commonly with fluoroquinolones, to which this strain was susceptible. There were no significant differences in symptoms, hospitalization, duration of illness, or other outcomes between the persons infected with MDR-AmpC and pansusceptible S. Newport. Although currently prevalent MDR-AmpC S. Newport strains remains susceptible to the antimicrobial most commonly prescribed for it, continued efforts to reduce unnecessary use of antimicrobial agents in food animals and humans are critical to prevent further development of resistance to quinolones and cephalosporins, which is likely to lead to substantial adverse outcomes.
    Microbial Drug Resistance 02/2005; 11(4):371-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter causes >1 million infections annually in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are used to treat Campylobacter infections in adults. Although human infections with ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter have become increasingly common, the human health consequences of such infections are not well described. A case-control study of persons with sporadic Campylobacter infection was conducted within 7 FoodNet sites during 1998-1999. The E-test system (AB Biodisk) was used to test for antimicrobial susceptibility to ciprofloxacin; ciprofloxacin resistance was defined as a ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration of > or =4 microg/mL. We conducted a case-comparison study of interviewed persons who had an isolate tested. Of 858 isolates tested, 94 (11%) were ciprofloxacin resistant. Among 290 persons with Campylobacter infection who did not take antidiarrheal medications, persons with ciprofloxacin-resistant infection had a longer mean duration of diarrhea than did persons with ciprofloxacin-susceptible infection (9 vs. 7 days [P=.04]). This difference was even more pronounced among the 63 persons who did not take antidiarrheal medications or antimicrobial agents (12 vs. 6 days [P=.04]). In a multivariable analysis-of-variance model, the persons with ciprofloxacin-resistant infection had a longer mean duration of diarrhea than did the persons with ciprofloxacin-susceptible infection (P=.01); this effect was independent of foreign travel. The association between ciprofloxacin resistance and prolonged diarrhea is consistent across a variety of analytical approaches. Persons with ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection have a longer duration of diarrhea than do persons with ciprofloxacin-susceptible Campylobacter infection. Additional efforts are needed to preserve the efficacy of fluoroquinolones.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2004; 190(6):1150-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have evaluated the role of Cryptosporidium spp. in outbreaks of enteric illness, but few studies have evaluated sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the United States. To assess the risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons, a matched case-control study was conducted in seven sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) involving 282 persons with laboratory-identified cryptosporidiosis and 490 age-matched and geographically matched controls. Risk factors included international travel (odds ratio [OR] = 7.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.7 to 22.0), contact with cattle (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.8 to 6.8), contact with persons >2 to 11 years of age with diarrhea (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.5 to 6.2), and freshwater swimming (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.049 to 3.5). Eating raw vegetables was protective (OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3 to 0.7). This study underscores the need for ongoing public health education to prevent cryptosporidiosis, particularly among travelers, animal handlers, child caregivers, and swimmers, and the need for further assessment of the role of raw vegetables in cryptosporidiosis.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2004; 42(7):2944-51. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, but few population-based data describing patterns and trends of disease are available. We summarize data on culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection reported during 1996-1999 to the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) system. The average annual culture-confirmed incidence was 21.9 cases/100,000 population, with substantial site variation (from 43.8 cases/100,000 population in California to 12.2 cases/100,000 population in Georgia). The incidence among male subjects was consistently higher than that among female subjects in all age groups. The incidence trended downward over the 4 years, with incidences of 23.6, 25.2, 21.4, and 17.5 cases/100,000 population for 1996-1999, respectively--a 26% overall decrease. This trend was sharpest and most consistent in California. Overall, we estimate that ~2 million people were infected with Campylobacter in the United States each year during this time period. Although the number of Campylobacter infections appears to have decreased in the United States during 1996-1999, the disease burden remains significant, which underscores the need to better understand how the disease is transmitted.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 38 Suppl 3:S165-74. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the population of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas ("FoodNet sites") in 1996, children under 12 months of age had the highest incidence of sporadic salmonellosis. We conducted a case-control study in 5 FoodNet sites to identify risk factors for sporadic infant salmonellosis. A case patient was a child under 12 months of age with a laboratory-confirmed, nontyphoidal serogroup B or D Salmonella infection. Twenty-two case patients were matched with 39 control subjects by age and either telephone exchange or vital record birth list. In a multivariate analysis, case patients were more likely to have a liquid diet containing no breast milk than a liquid diet containing only breast milk (matched odds ratio, 44.5; P=.04). Case-patients were more likely to reside in a household where a member had diarrhea (matched odds ratio, 13.2; P=.01). To decrease their infants' risk of salmonellosis, mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed their infants. Caretakers of infants should learn about salmonellosis, hand washing, and safe preparation of formula and solid food.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 38 Suppl 3:S262-70. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the burden of illness caused by Escherichia coli O157 infections in populations in Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas, we initiated active, laboratory-based surveillance and surveyed laboratories, physicians, and the general public regarding the factors associated with the diagnosis and surveillance of infection with E. coli O157. We evaluated survey responses and site-specific incidence, outbreak, and demographic data during 1996-1999. A total of 1425 laboratory-confirmed cases of E. coli O157 infection and 32 outbreaks were reported from the 5 original FoodNet sites. The average annual incidence ranged from 0.5 cases/100,000 population in Georgia to 4.4 cases/100,000 population in Minnesota. After excluding outbreak-associated cases, the annual incidence of sporadic, laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157 infections remained relatively stable during 1996-1999, with a range of 1.9-2.3 cases/100,000 population. Regional differences in incidence partly resulted from differing physician and laboratory practices and from site-specific exposure factors (e.g., living on or visiting farms).
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 38 Suppl 3:S157-64. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several strains of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, including MDR S. Typhimurium definitive type 104, cause almost 10% of Salmonella infections among humans in the United States. To determine the risk factors for acquiring sporadic MDR S. Typhimurium infection, we conducted a population-based, case-control study using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) during 1996-1997. S. Typhimurium isolates from 5 FoodNet surveillance areas (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, and Oregon) were tested for antimicrobial resistance and phage typing. Telephone interviews were conducted with ill persons and matched control subjects. Compared with both control subjects and patients infected with pansensitive strains of S. Typhimurium, patients with MDR S. Typhimurium infection were significantly more likely to have received an antimicrobial agent, particularly an agent to which the Salmonella isolate was resistant, during the 4 weeks preceding illness onset. Prudent antimicrobial agent use among humans and among veterinarians and food-animal producers is necessary to reduce the burden of drug-resistant salmonellosis in humans.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 38 Suppl 3:S227-36. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sources of sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) infections in the United States are unclear. To determine risk factors for sporadic SE infection, we conducted a population-based case-control study in 5 Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network surveillance areas. During the 12-month study, 396 cases of SE infection were ascertained. Among the 182 case patients and 345 controls, SE infection was univariately associated with international travel (matched odds ratio [MOR], 61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8-447), eating undercooked eggs (MOR, 2.2; 95%CI, 1-5), and eating chicken prepared outside of the home (MOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4). Multivariate analysis revealed that eating chicken outside of the home remained the only significant risk factor for illness (MOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6). Chicken consumption has not previously been identified in the United States as a risk factor for SE infection. Measures to prevent SE infections include educating consumers and food handlers about food safety and interventions to decrease contamination of eggs and poultry.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 38 Suppl 3:S244-52. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shigella is a common cause of diarrhea in the United States, and accurate surveillance is needed to determine the burden of illness that they cause. Active surveillance for culture-confirmed Shigella infection was done as part of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). A total of 4317 cases of shigellosis were reported during 1996-1999 in the original FoodNet surveillance areas. The average annual incidence was 7.4 cases/100,000 population. The incidence was similar during 1996-1998, but it declined in 1999 to 5.0 cases/100,000 population. State-to-state variability was seen in the incidence of shigellosis. Higher incidence was observed in California and Georgia. Shigella sonnei accounted for 70% of the infections, followed by Shigella flexneri (24%). Compared with other age groups, the incidence was highest among children aged 1-4 years of (36.3 cases/100,000 population). Marked demographic differences were observed between infections with S. sonnei and S. flexneri.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 38 Suppl 3:S175-80. · 9.37 Impact Factor