Susana J Berríos-Rivera

Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (7)47.61 Total impact

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    S J Berríos-Rivera, A M Sánchez, G N Bennett, K-Y San
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    ABSTRACT: A range of intracellular NADH availability was achieved by combining external and genetic strategies. The effect of these manipulations on the distribution of metabolites in Escherichia coli was assessed in minimal and complex medium under anoxic conditions. Our in vivo system to increase intracellular NADH availability expressed a heterologous NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii in E. coli. The heterologous FDH pathway converted 1 mol formate into 1 mol NADH and carbon dioxide, in contrast to the native FDH where cofactor involvement was not present. Previously, we found that this NADH regeneration system doubled the maximum yield of NADH from 2 mol to 4 mol NADH/mol glucose consumed. In the current study, we found that yields of greater than 4 mol NADH were achieved when carbon sources more reduced than glucose were combined with our in vivo NADH regeneration system. This paper demonstrates experimentally that different levels of NADH availability can be achieved by combining the strategies of feeding the cells with carbon sources which have different oxidation states and regenerating NADH through the heterologous FDH pathway. The general trend of the data is substantially similar for minimal and complex media. The NADH availability obtained positively correlates with the proportion of reduced by-products in the final culture. The maximum theoretical yield for ethanol is obtained from glucose and sorbitol in strains overexpressing the heterologous FDH pathway.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2004; 65(4):426-32. DOI:10.1007/s00253-004-1609-3 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    Susana J Berríos-Rivera, Ka-Yiu San, George N Bennett
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    ABSTRACT: In previous studies, we showed that cofactor manipulations can potentially be used as a tool in metabolic engineering. In this study, sugars similar to glucose, that can feed into glycolysis and pyruvate production, but with different oxidation states, were used as substrates. This provided a simple way of testing the effect of manipulating the NADH/NAD+ ratio or the availability of NADH on the metabolic patterns of Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions and on the production of 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), which requires NADH for its synthesis. Production of 1,2-PD was achieved by overexpressing the two enzymes methylglyoxal synthase from Clostridium acetobutylicum and glycerol dehydrogenase from E. coli. In addition, the effect of eliminating a pathway competing for NADH by using a ldh(-) strain (without lactate dehydrogenase activity) on the production of 1,2-PD was investigated. The oxidation state of the carbon source significantly affected the yield of metabolites, such as ethanol, acetate and lactate. However, feeding a more reduced carbon source did not increase the yield of 1,2-PD. The production of 1,2-PD with glucose as the carbon source was improved by the incorporation of a ldh(-) mutation. The results of these experiments indicate that our current 1,2-PD production system is not limited by NADH, but rather by the pathways following the formation of methylglyoxal.
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2003; 30(1):34-40. DOI:10.1007/s10295-002-0006-0 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Susana J Berríos-Rivera, George N Bennett, Ka-Yiu San
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    ABSTRACT: It is generally known that cofactors play a major role in the production of different fermentation products. This paper is part of a systematic study that investigates the potential of cofactor manipulations as a new tool for metabolic engineering. The NADH/NAD+ cofactor pair plays a major role in microbial catabolism, in which a carbon source, such as glucose, is oxidized using NAD+ and producing reducing equivalents in the form of NADH. It is crucially important for continued cell growth that NADH be oxidized to NAD+ and a redox balance be achieved. Under aerobic growth, oxygen is used as the final electron acceptor. While under anaerobic growth, and in the absence of an alternate oxidizing agent, the regeneration of NAD+ is achieved through fermentation by using NADH to reduce metabolic intermediates. Therefore, an increase in the availability of NADH is expected to have an effect on the metabolic distribution. We have previously investigated a genetic means of increasing the availability of intracellular NADH in vivo by regenerating NADH through the heterologous expression of an NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase and have demonstrated that this manipulation provoked a significant change in the final metabolite concentration pattern both anaerobically and aerobically (Berríos-Rivera et al., 2002, Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: increase of NADH availability by overexpressing an NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase, Metabolic Eng. 4, 217-229). The current work explores further the effect of substituting the native cofactor-independent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) by an NAD(+)-dependent FDH from Candida boidinii on the NAD(H/+) levels, NADH/NAD+ ratio, metabolic fluxes and carbon-mole yields in Escherichia coli under anaerobic chemostat conditions. Overexpression of the NAD(+)-dependent FDH provoked a significant redistribution of both metabolic fluxes and carbon-mole yields. Under anaerobic chemostat conditions, NADH availability increased from 2 to 3 mol NADH/mol glucose consumed and the production of more reduced metabolites was favored, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in the ethanol to acetate ratio and a decrease in the flux to lactate. It was also found that the NADH/NAD+ ratio should not be used as a sole indicator of the oxidation state of the cell. Instead, the metabolic distribution, like the Et/Ac ratio, should also be considered because the turnover of NADH can be fast in an effort to achieve a redox balance.
    Metabolic Engineering 08/2002; 4(3):230-7. · 8.26 Impact Factor
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    Susana J Berríos-Rivera, George N Bennett, Ka-Yiu San
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic engineering studies have generally focused on manipulating enzyme levels through either the amplification, addition, or deletion of a particular pathway. However, with cofactor-dependent production systems, once the enzyme levels are no longer limiting, cofactor availability and the ratio of the reduced to oxidized form of the cofactor can become limiting. Under these situations, cofactor manipulation may become crucial in order to further increase system productivity. Although it is generally known that cofactors play a major role in the production of different fermentation products, their role has not been thoroughly and systematically studied. However, cofactor manipulations can potentially become a powerful tool for metabolic engineering. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) functions as a cofactor in over 300 oxidation-reduction reactions and regulates various enzymes and genetic processes. The NADH/NAD+ cofactor pair plays a major role in microbial catabolism, in which a carbon source, such as glucose, is oxidized using NAD+ producing reducing equivalents in the form of NADH. It is crucially important for continued cell growth that NADH be oxidized to NAD+ and a redox balance be achieved. Under aerobic growth, oxygen is used as the final electron acceptor. While under anaerobic growth, and in the absence of an alternate oxidizing agent, the regeneration of NAD+ is achieved through fermentation by using NADH to reduce metabolic intermediates. Therefore, an increase in the availability of NADH is expected to have an effect on the metabolic distribution. This paper investigates a genetic means of manipulating the availability of intracellular NADH in vivo by regenerating NADH through the heterologous expression of an NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase. More specifically, it explores the effect on the metabolic patterns in Escherichia coli under anaerobic and aerobic conditions of substituting the native cofactor-independent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) by and NAD(+)-dependent FDH from Candida boidinii. The over-expression of the NAD(+)-dependent FDH doubled the maximum yield of NADH from 2 to 4 mol NADH/mol glucose consumed, increased the final cell density, and provoked a significant change in the final metabolite concentration pattern both anaerobically and aerobically. Under anaerobic conditions, the production of more reduced metabolites was favored, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in the ethanol-to-acetate ratio. Even more interesting is the observation that during aerobic growth, the increased availability of NADH induced a shift to fermentation even in the presence of oxygen by stimulating pathways that are normally inactive under these conditions.
    Metabolic Engineering 08/2002; 4(3):217-29. DOI:10.1006/mben.2002.0227 · 8.26 Impact Factor
  • Susana J Berríos-Rivera, K Y San, G N Bennett
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli (E. coli) maintains its total NADH/NAD+ intracellular pool by synthesizing NAD through the de novo pathway and the pyridine nucleotide salvage pathway. The salvage pathway recycles intracellular NAD breakdown products and preformed pyridine compounds from the environment, such as nicotinic acid (NA). The enzyme nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRTase; EC 2.4.2.11), encoded by the pncB gene, catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide (NAMN), a direct precursor of NAD, from NA. This reaction is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the NAD salvage pathway. The current study investigates the effect of overexpressing the pncB gene from Salmonella typhimurium on the total levels of NAD, the NADH/NAD+ ratio, and the production of different metabolites in E. coli under anaerobic chemostat conditions and anaerobic tube experiments. In addition, this paper studies the effect of combining the overexpression of the pncB gene with an NADH regeneration strategy that increases intracellular NADH availability, as we have previously shown. (The effect of increasing NADH availability on the redistribution of metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli chemostat cultures, Metabolic Eng. 4, 230-237; Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: Increase of NADH availability by overexpressing an NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase, Metabolic Eng. 4, 217-229.) Overexpression of the pncB gene in chemostat experiments increased the total NAD levels, decreased the NADH/NAD+ ratio, and did not significantly redistribute the metabolic fluxes. However, under anaerobic tube conditions, overexpression of the pncB gene led to a significant shift in the metabolic patterns as evidenced by a decrease in lactate production and an increase as high as two-fold in the ethanol-to-acetate (Et/Ac) ratio. These results suggest that under chemostat conditions the total level of NAD is not limiting and the metabolic rates are fixed by the system at steady state. On the other hand, under transient conditions (such as those in batch cultivation) the increase in the total level of NAD can increase the rate of NADH-dependent pathways (ethanol) and therefore change the final distribution of metabolites. The effect of combining overexpression of the pncB gene with the substitution of the native cofactor-independent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) with an NAD(+)-dependent FDH was also investigated under anaerobic tube conditions. This manipulation produced a metabolic pattern that combines a high Et/Ac ratio similar to that obtained with the new FDH with an intermediate lactate level similar to that obtained with the overexpression of the pncB gene. It was found that addition of the pncB gene to the FDH system does not increase further the production of reduced metabolites because the system for NADH regeneration already reached the maximum theoretical yield of approximately 4 mol NADH/mol of glucose.
    Metabolic Engineering 08/2002; 4(3):238-47. · 8.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Applications of genetic engineering or metabolic engineering have increased in both academic and industrial institutions. Most current metabolic engineering studies have focused on enzyme levels and on the effect of the amplification, addition, or deletion of a particular pathway. Although it is generally known that cofactors play a major role in the production of different fermentation products, their role has not been thoroughly and systematically studied. It is conceivable that in cofactor-dependent production systems, cofactor availability and the proportion of cofactor in the active form may play an important role in dictating the overall process yield. Hence, the manipulation of these cofactor levels may be crucial in order to further increase production. We have demonstrated that manipulation of cofactors can be achieved by external and genetic means and these manipulations have the potential to be used as an additional tool to achieve desired metabolic goals. We have shown experimentally that the NADH/NAD(+) ratio can be altered by using carbon sources with different oxidation states. We have shown further that the metabolite distribution can be influenced by a change in the NADH/NAD(+) ratio as mediated by the oxidation state of the carbon source used. We have also demonstrated that the total NAD(H/(+)) levels can be increased by the overexpression of the pncB gene. The increase in the total NAD(H/(+)) levels can be achieved even in a complex medium, which is commonly used by most industrial processes. Finally, we have shown that manipulation of the CoA pool/flux can be used to increase the productivity of a model product, isoamyl acetate.
    Metabolic Engineering 05/2002; 4(2):182-92. DOI:10.1006/mben.2001.0220 · 8.26 Impact Factor
  • S J Berríos-Rivera, Y T Yang, G N Bennett, K Y San
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work in our laboratories investigated the use of methyl alpha-glucoside (alpha-MG), a glucose analog that shares a phosphotransferase system with glucose, to modulate glucose uptake and therefore reduce acetate accumulation. The results of that study showed a significant improvement in batch culture performance and a reduction in acetate excretion without any significant effect on the growth rate in complex medium. The current study investigates the effect of supplementing the culture medium with the glucose analog alpha-MG on the metabolic fluxes of Escherichia coli under anaerobic chemostat conditions at two different dilution rates. Anaerobic chemostat studies utilizing complex media supplemented with glucose or glucose and alpha-MG at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.4 h(-1), were performed, and the metabolic fluxes were analyzed. It was found that the addition of the glucose analog alpha-MG has an effect on the specific production rate of various extracellular metabolites. This effect is slightly greater at the higher dilution rate of 0.4 h(-1). However, the glucose analog does not cause any major shift in the central metabolic patterns. It was further observed that alpha-MG supplementation does not result in the reduction in specific acetate synthesis rate in anaerobic chemostat cultures. These results emphasize the importance of testing different strategies for metabolic manipulation under the actual operating conditions.
    Metabolic Engineering 05/2000; 2(2):149-54. · 8.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

394 Citations
47.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2004
    • Rice University
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Houston, Texas, United States