Suresh Gururaja Rao

Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Fort Cochin, Kerala, India

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Publications (5)8.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report an unusual complication following closure of atrial septal defect through right limited posterior thoracotomy. An eight-year-old girl underwent closure of atrial septal defect through right limited posterior thoracotomy. She developed cardiac herniation in the early post-operative period following a tension pneumothorax on the left side, while recovering in the intensive care unit. Cardiac herniation was promptly recognized, albeit subtle hemodynamic changes, and was reduced through re-operation. Liberal use of pericardium for closure of intra-cardiac defects results in a gap in the pericardial sac. Posterior thoracotomy approach for closure of atrial septal defect has a higher propensity for cardiac herniation owing to the small size and postero-lateral location of the pericardial defect. Recognition and early treatment of cardiac herniation is important since it can mimic cardiac tamponade. Cardiac herniation can be avoided either by enlarging the pericardial defect or by closing it with a prosthetic patch.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 07/2006; 5(3):272-4. DOI:10.1510/icvts.2005.118752 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ideal age for bidirectional Glenn shunt (BDGS) as the first stage of staged Fontan is still not clear. Because of the concerns regarding relatively high pulmonary vascular resistance during infancy, many centres would bridge through a systemic to pulmonary artery shunt in this age group. Patients and MethodsWe did a retrospective analysis of 28 infants who had undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt at our institute from February 200. ResultsThe mean age was 5 months (2.5–11) and the mean weight was 6.5 Kg (3.4–8.7). Boys dominated the group (25∶3). 7 infants had previous procedures. In 3 patients, BDGS was done as a salvage procedure. Formal Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was used in all but 4 patients, in whom a right heart bypass was used. Superior Vena Cava (SVC) or innominate vein was cannulated in 12 patients and the rest were managed with temporary occlusion of SVC under deep hypothermic low flow bypass. 9 infants had bilateral BDGS. The main pulmonary artery was interrupted in 12 and atrial septectomy was done in 10 patients. Additional procedures with BDGS included Patent Ductus Arterious (PDA) interruption, Blalock Taussig (BT) shunt interruption, Left pulmonary arterioplasty, Stansel procedure and redo TAPVC repair. The mean SVC pressure post operatively was 14 (10–24) and only 2 patients needed pulmonary vasodilators in the post-oprative period. There is only one mortality in this series and the duration of chest tube drainage and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay is comparable with the older age group. ConclusionBDGS can be performed safely in infants more than 2 months of age electively or as a salvage procedure. It helps to avoid one step in the form of aortopulmonary shunt and hence the ventricular volume overload associated with it. Further studies are required to establish the growth potential of pulmonary arteries following an early BDGS.
    Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2004; 20(4):159-163. DOI:10.1007/s12055-004-0075-y
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    ABSTRACT: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right pulmonary artery is a very rare congenital anomaly, and its occurrence with coarctation of the aorta has been reported in very few patients. We report a neonate where the coronary anomaly was missed preoperatively and diagnosed after repair of the coarctation. The patient thereafter underwent ligation of the left anomalous coronary artery and had an uneventful convalescence.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2004; 78(1):324-6. DOI:10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01469-3 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modifications have been made in cardiopulmonary circuit to reduce the inflammatory deleterious effects and cost. We present our experience of one such right heart bypass (RHB) circuit utilizing autologus lung as oxygenator. From September 2001 to December 2002, 15 patients underwent congenital heart surgery with this technique. Bypass circuit consisted of a reservoir and a roller pump along with a cardiotomy sucker. The left pulmonary artery and main pulmonary artery were used for arterial return, and venous drainage was achieved with innominate vein cannulation. Inferior vena cava cannulation was performed when needed. Thirteen patients underwent bidirectional Glenn shunt surgery (12 to 24 months, 6 to 10 kg). One patient (26 years old) underwent central shunt with enlargement of confluence and left pulmonary artery. Another patient (18 months old) underwent 1.5 ventricle repair. There were no hospital deaths. Mean flow achieved on RHB was 0.57 +/- 0.3 L/min/m(2), central venous pressure was 3.3 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (0 to 7 mm Hg), and mean arterial pressure could be maintained satisfactorily in all patients (54 +/- 14 mm Hg). Mean RHB time was 54 +/- 14 min. Mean central venous pressure was 10.1 +/- 2.4 mm Hg after procedure and saturation was similar to that on (RHB 88% +/- 8%). The mean amount of drainage was 9.1 +/- 4.2 mL/kg per 24 hours. Avoiding an oxygenator and reducing the number of tubings achieved a combined cost savings of 40% for all procedures. Right heart bypass is a simple, safer, and less expensive alternative to conventional cardiopulmonary bypass. This technique allows effective decompression of superior vena cava, adequate oxygenation, and predicts saturation after Glenn shunt. It can also be applied for central shunts and pulmonary artery reconstructions with cost containment.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 04/2004; 77(3):988-93. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2003.08.028 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tricuspid leaflet detachment improves visualization and accuracy of closure of ventricular septal defects via the transatrial route. Between July 1998 and March 2001, surgical correction was performed in 296 cases of isolated ventricular septal defect, 215 cases of tetralogy of Fallot, and 16 cases of double-outlet right ventricle. Of these, 132 patients (79 with isolated ventricular septal defect, 49 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 4 with double-outlet right ventricle) underwent transatrial repair with temporary detachment of tricuspid leaflets for ventricular septal defect closure. The septal leaflet was detached in most cases, with anterior or posterior leaflets being detached when indicated. Median duration of intensive care was 3.6 days, and median hospital stay was 7 days. There was no incidence of tricuspid regurgitation attributable to leaflet detachment, as confirmed by postoperative echocardiography. Reoperation was not required for a residual defect or tricuspid regurgitation. The benefits of temporary leaflet detachment for transatrial repair of various difficult defects far outweigh the risk of postoperative tricuspid regurgitation.
    Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 01/2003; 10(4):314-7. DOI:10.1177/021849230201000407