SUM-KIN LEUNG

Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Publications (10)15.54 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coronary stenting is associated with a high incidence of restenosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that diabetic patients treated with abciximab have a lower rate of target vessel revascularization (TVR). We sought to investigate whether abciximab can reduce in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting in diabetic patients. In this prospective double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 254 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing nonurgent coronary stenting to receive abciximab with an initial heparin bolus of 50 U/kg (n = 128) or placebo with an initial heparin bolus of 70 U/kg (n = 126). All patients received aspirin and clopidogrel before the procedure. The primary endpoint was angiographic restenosis by quantitative coronary angiography at 6 months. The secondary endpoint was death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 months. The clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics were matched between the 2 groups. Angiographic follow-up was completed in 226 patients (90%). Angiographic restenosis occurred in 29.1% of the abciximab group, and 24% of the placebo group (p = 0.30). The rates of the secondary endpoint were similar between the 2 groups (23.4% in the abciximab group versus 22.2% in the placebo group; p = 0.88). TLR was performed on 36 (18.4%) lesions in 29 (23.4%) patients of the abciximab group, and 26 (13.6%) lesions in 23 (18.3%) patients of the placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.21 and 0.35, respectively). Abciximab does not reduce angiographic restenosis or TLR in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing nonurgent coronary stenting.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 11/2005; 17(10):534-8. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2004; 43(5).
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    ABSTRACT: While the hemodynamic and clinical significance of automatic mode switching (AMS) in patients with pacemakers has been demonstrated, the clinical behavior of AMS algorithms differ widely according to the manufacturers and pacemaker models. In general, a "rate-cutoff" detection method of atrial tachyarrhythmias provides a rapid AMS onset and resynchronization to sinus rhythm at the termination of atrial tachyarrhythmias, but may cause intermittent oscillations between the atrial tracking and AMS mode. This can be minimized with a "counter" of total number of high rate events before the AMS occurs. The use of a "running average" algorithm results in more stable rate control during AMS by reducing the incidence of oscillations, but at the expense of delayed AMS onset and resynchronization to sinus rhythm. Algorithms may be combined to fine tune the AMS response and to avoid rapid fluctuation in pacing rate. Appropriate programming of atrial sensitivity, and the avoidance of ventriculoatrial cross-talk are essential for optimal AMS performance.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 08/2002; 25(7):1094-113. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Automatic mode switching (AMS) is now a programmable function in most contemporary dual chamber pacemakers. Atrial tachyarrhythmias are detected when the sensed atrial rate exceeds a "rate-cutoff," "running average," "sensor-based physiological" rate, or using "complex" detection algorithms. AMS algorithms differ in their atrial tachyarrhythmia detection method, sensitivity, and specificity and, thus, respond differently to atrial tachyarrhythmia in terms of speed to the AMS onset, rate stability of the response, and speed to resynchronize to sinus rhythm. AMS is hemodynamically beneficial, and most patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias are symptomatically better with an AMS algorithm in their pacemakers. New diagnostic capabilities of pacemaker especially stored electrograms not only allow programming of the AMS function, but enable quantification of atrial fibrillation burden that facilitate clinical management of patients with implantable devices who have concomitant atrial tachyarrhythmia.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 07/2002; 25(6):967-83. · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • HUNG-FAT TSE, CHU-PAK LAU, SUM-KIN LEUNG
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    ABSTRACT: TSE, H.–F., et al.: A Cephalic Vein Cutdown and Venography Technique to Facilitate Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Implantation. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a cephalic vein cutdown and venography technique for implantation of a pacemaker or ICD and to determine the causes of failure of cephalic vein cutdown. In consecutive patients who underwent pacemaker or ICD implants, a modified cephalic vein guidewire technique was performed. This technique was attempted in 289 pacemaker implants and 26 ICD implants (155 men, 160 women; mean age 74 ± 10 years). The success rate for implantation of a single chamber and a dual chamber device by using this technique alone was 84% (54/64) and 74% (185/251), respectively (P = 0.10). In an additional 7% of patients with dual chamber implant, the cephalic vein can be used for passage of the ventricular lead. A cephalic venogram was required in 82 patients and facilitated the passage of the guidewire in 62 (79%) of them. No complication related to vascular access was observed with this technique. This technique failed in 54 (17%) of 315 patients due to (1) failure of cephalic vein isolation (48%), (2) venous stenosis (24%), or (3) venous torturosity or anomalies (28%). There were no significant differences in the patient's age, sex, type of device, and the fluoroscopic time for lead placement between patients with or without successful lead placement using this technique (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, a simple modification of the cephalic vein guidewire technique together with venography has facilitated the placement of leads during pacemaker and ICD implant. This technique is safe and applicable in the majority of patients and avoids the risk of subclavian puncture.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 03/2001; 24(4):469 - 473. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Automatic mode switching (AMS) is a useful means to avoid rapid ventricular response during atrial fibrillation (AF), but AMS cannot occur if the detected atrial rate during AF is below the mode switching criteria. This may be the result of antiarrhythmic medications, or when the atrial events fall within the atrial blanking period, or if the atrial amplitudes during AF are too small to be sensed. We hypothesize that the addition of an automatic rate switching (ARS) algorithm may complement AMS response during AF with different detected atrial rates. We studied the Marathon DDDR pacemaker (Model 294–09, Intermedics Inc.) with the AMS and ARS algorithms that are independently programmable but can also operate in combination. AF sensed above the AMS rate (160 beats/mm) will lead to VDIR pacing, whereas AF below AMS rate will be tracked at an interim rate as dictate by the ARS, at a ventricular response that is 20 beats/min above the sensor indicated rate. Atrial tachyarrhythmias were simulated by chest wall stimulation (CWS). CWS was applied to 33 patients (16 men, 17 women, mean age 69 ± 11 years) with a Marathon DDDR pacemaker using an external pacer to simulate AF occurring at two rate levels: above the AMS rate (programmed at 160 beats/min) at 180 beats/min and below the AMS rate at 120 beats/min. The maximum, minimum, and mean ventricular rates during CWS in DDDR mode with AMS alone, ARS alone, and their combination were compared. During CWS at 120 beats/min, the AMS plus ARS setting showed a mean ventricular rate of 79 ± 3 beats/min and 124 ± 14 beats/mm in the AMS setting alone (P < 0.01). With CWS at 180 beats/min, the mean ventricular rate in the AMS plus ARS setting compared to the AMS setting alone was not significantly different. However, the variation in ventricular pacing rate was 7 ± 14 beats/min in the AMS plus ARS setting and 40 ± 42 beats/min in the AMS setting (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AMS is effective for simulated atrial tachyarrhythmias sensed above the AMS rate. Combined AMS with ARS is useful to handle simulated atrial tachyarrhythmia at a slower rate and to avoid rate fluctuation during AMS. There is also a possibility that this can be applied to the naturally occurring atrial tachyarrhythmias.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 04/2000; 23(5):824 - 831. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central venous oxygen saturation (SvOz) closely reflects cardiac output and tissue oxygen consumption. In the absence of an adequate chronotropic response during exercise, SvO2 will decrease and the extent of desaturation maybe used as a parameter for rate adaptive cardiac pacing. Eight patients with sinoatrial disease received a DDDR pacemaker capable of DDDR pacing by sensing either SVO2 or piezoelectric detected body movement. Both sensors were programmed to attain a rate of about 100 beats/min during walking, and with the lower and upper rates set at 50% and 90% of age predicted maximum, respectively. Chronotropic behavior of the two sensors were compared in the DDD mode with measurement of sensor responses, during everyday activities (walking, stair climbing, postural changes, and physiological stresses) and at each quartile of workload during a continuous treadmill exercise test. During walking at 2.5 mph, both sensors showed no significant difference in delay time (both react within 15 sees) or half-time (SVO2= 36 ± 12 sec and activity 24 ± 3 sec; P = NS), although SVO2 driven pacing achieved 90% target rate response slowerthan activity sensing (124 ± 16 sec vs 77 ± 10 sec; P < 0.02). SVO2 pacing was associated with a more physiological rate response during walking upslope (68 ± 12 beats/min vs 57 ± 10 beats/ min; P < 0.05), ascending stairs (59 ± 10 beats/min vs 31 ± 6 beats/min; P < 0.05), and standing (34 ± 7 beats/min vs 9 ± 2 beats/min; P < 0.05). The SvO2 sensor significantly overpaced in the first quartile of exercise (51.8 ± 25.6% in excess of heart rate expected from workload), but the rate was within 20% of expected for the remainder of exercise. “Underpacing” was observed with the activity sensor at the higher workload. In conclusion, the SvO2 sensor demonstrated a more physiological response to activities of daily living compared with the activity sensor. Using a quantitative method, the speed of onset of rate response of the SvO2 sensor was comparable to activity sensing, and was more proportional in rate response. Significant overpacing occurs at the beginning of exercise during SVO2 driven pacing, which may be improved with the use of a curvilinear algorithm.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 11/1994; 17(12):2236 - 2246. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although multisensor pacing may mitigate the inadequacy of rate adaptation in a single sensor system, the clinical role of multisensor driven rate adaptive pacing remains unclear. The cardiopulmonary performance of six patients (mean age 63.5 ± 10 years) who had undergone the implant of combined QT and activity VVIR (Topaz®) pacemakers was assessed during submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise with the rate response sensor randomly programmed to either single sensor mode. QT and activity (ACT), or dual sensor mode, with equal contribution of QT and ACT (QT = ACT). The rate of response, the proportionality, oxygen kinetics, and maximal exercise performance of the various sensor modes during exercise were measured and compared. The ACT sensor mode “overpaced” and the QT and QT = ACT sensor modes “underpaced” during the first three quartiles of exercise (P < 0.05). The ACT sensor mode also gave the fastest rate of response with the shortest delay (13 ± 1.5 sec vs 145 ± 58 sec and 41 ± 17 sec, P < 0.05), time to 50% rate response (39 ±2.7 sec vs 275 ± 48 sec and 203 ± 40 sec, P < 0.05), and time to 90% of rate response (107 ± 21 sec vs 375 ± 34 sec and 347 ± 34 sec, P < 0.05) and a smaller oxygen debt (0.87 ± 0.16 L vs 1.10 ± 0.2 L and 1.07 ± 0.18 L, P < 0.05) compared to the QTand QT = ACT sensor modes, respectively. These differences were most significant at low exercise workloads. Thus, different sensor combinations resuh in different rate response profiles and oxygen delivery, especially during low level exercise. However, the observed oxygen kinetics difference was workload dependent, and its clinical relevance remains to be tested. Despite the marked difference in exercise rate profile and oxygen kinetics, there was no difference in the maximal oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold, and exercise duration between the various sensor modes during maximal exercise.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 10/1994; 17(11):1920 - 1927. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocardial P wave amplitude (PWA) is an important determinant of the atrial sensing capabilities of an atrial-based pacing system. Although changes in PWA during physical activities are known to occur in DDD/R pacing, there is little information on the P wave stability in single pass lead VDD/R pacemakers using floating P wave sensing. We investigated the variation of PWA during daily life activities using telemetry recorded atrial electrograms in 21 patients with DDDR pacemakers (Relay or Elite) and 29 patients with single lead VDD/ R pacemakers (Unity or Thera). Physical activities resulted in marked individual variability of PWA but, as a group, there was no significant difference between PWA during sitting, standing, lying down, and coughing in both DDDR and VDD/R pacing. In the Elite II pacemaker, walking at 2 miles per hour resulted in significant reduction of PWA (11.6% compared with sitting, P < 0.05). The most consistent reduction in PWA occurred in the relaxation phase of the Valsalva maneuver (VM), with all pacemakers showing a reduction in PWA (mean reduction in PWA compared with sitting in DDDR and VDD/R were 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively). Two patients with DDDR pacemakers (Relay) and three patients with VDD/R pacemakers (1 Unity and 2 Thera) had atrial sensing failure during VM or walking. In conclusion, large variation in PWA occurs during daily life activities. The extent of variation is dependent on the patients, types of atrial lead, and the maneuvers performed. A twice sensing threshold may be insufficient to ensure adequate atrial sensing during these activities. The VM, which effects a consistent change in intracardiac volume, is the most reliable method for bedside evaluation of the lower end of sensitivity margin.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 10/1994; 17(11):1873 - 1877. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid ventricular tracking response to supraventricular tachyarrhythmia is one major limitation to DDD pacing. In a DDDR pacemaker, sensor-based algorithms have been used to control these arrhythmias. These include the use of an interim rate limit (conditional ventricular tracking limit) or a separate maximum tracking and sensor rate limits (discrepant upper rate). These algorithms limit inappropriate ventricular pacing rate during tracking of pathological supraventricuiar tachyarrhythmia and atrial flutter by Wenckebach-like prolongation of the AV interval. We observed that this may cause an unexpected extension of the AV interval in patients with high atrial rate and intact AV nodal conduction. This was due to P wave rate above the conditional ventricular tracking limit or maximum tracking limit, but AV paced interval prolongation was avoided by the occurrence of intrinsic conduction, albeit at an AV interval longer than the programmed AV interval. This might appear as failure of ventricular pacing on the ECG. This phenomenon is a modified form of “upper rate” behavior occurring in the AV interval, and should be recognized as a normal behavior rather than pacemaker malfunction.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 02/1994; 17(3):321 - 330. · 1.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

66 Citations
15.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2002
    • Kwong Wah Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong