ABSTRACT: Career opportunities for athletic training students (ATSs) have increased substantially over the past few years. However, ATSs commonly appear to be opting for a more diversified professional experience after graduation. With the diversity in available options, an understanding of career decision is imperative.
To use the theoretical framework of socialization to investigate the influential factors behind the postgraduation decisions of senior ATSs.
Web-based management system and telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-two ATSs (16 females, 6 males; age = 22 ± 2 years) who graduated in May 2010 from 13 different programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Data Collection and Analysis: All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed inductively. Data analysis required independent coding by 2 athletic trainers for specific themes. Credibility of the results was confirmed via peer review, methodologic triangulation, and multiple analyst triangulation.
Two higher-order themes emerged from the data analysis: persistence in athletic training (AT) and decision to leave AT. Faculty and clinical instructor support, marketability, and professional growth were supporting themes describing persistence in AT. Shift of interest away from AT, lack of respect for the AT profession, compensation, time commitment, and AT as a stepping stone were themes sustaining the reasons that ATSs leave AT. The aforementioned reasons to leave often were discussed collectively, generating a collective undesirable outlook on the AT profession.
Our results highlight the importance of faculty support, professional growth, and early socialization into AT. Socialization of pre-AT students could alter retention rates by providing in-depth information about the profession before students commit in their undergraduate education and by helping reduce attrition before entrance into the workforce.
Journal of athletic training 01/2012; 47(6):679-93. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Female athletic trainers (ATs) experience gender discrimination in the workplace due to stereotypical gender roles, but limited information is available regarding the topic.
To understand the challenges and obstacles faced by young female ATs working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics.
Exploratory study using semistructured interviews.
Division I clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 14 female ATs were included in the study, using both criterion and snowball-sampling techniques. Their mean age was 27 ± 2 years, with 5 ± 2 years of overall clinical experience. Criteria included employment at the Division I clinical setting, being a full-time assistant AT, and at least 3 years of working experience but no more than 9 years to avoid role continuance. Data Collection and Analysis: Analysis of the interview data followed inductive procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Credibility was established by member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review.
Clear communication with both coaches and players about expectations and philosophies regarding medical care, a supportive head AT in terms of clinical competence, and having and serving as a role model were cited as critical tools to alleviate gender bias in the workplace.
The female ATs in this study stressed the importance of being assertive with coaches early in the season with regard to the AT's role on the team. They reasoned that these actions brought forth a greater perception of congruity between their roles as ATs and their gender and age. We suggest that female athletic training students seek mentors in their field while they complete their coursework and practicums. The ATs in the current study indicated that a mentor, regardless of sex, helped them feel empowered to navigate the male-centric terrain of athletic departments by encouraging them to be assertive and not second-guess their decisions.
Journal of athletic training 01/2012; 47(6):694-703. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: WORKING PROFESSIONALS, AT SOME POINT DURING THEIR CAREERS, WILL EXPERIENCE CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH BALANCING BOTH THEIR PROFESSIONAL AND THEIR PERSONAL OBLIGATIONS. JOB SHARING AND FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES, PRIORITIZATION, AND INTEGRATION ARE ALL STRATEGIES, WHICH CAN CREATE MORE BALANCE BETWEEN WORK AND PERSONAL LIFE.
Strength and conditioning journal 03/2011; 33(2):43-45. · 0.51 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is one of the leading causes of death in athletes. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) demonstrate strong knowledge of recommended practices with EHS but are apprehensive in implementing 2 basic procedures: rectal temperature assessment and cold water immersion. This apprehension might lead to deaths from EHS that could have been prevented.
To investigate why collegiate and high school ATs do not implement best practices for the recognition and treatment of EHS.
In-person focus groups consisting of 3 to 6 collegiate or high school ATs.
A total of 19 ATs (9 men, 10 women; age = 36 ± 10 years, length of certification = 12 ± 9 years) employed at either the collegiate (n = 10) or high school (n = 9) level participated in the study.
Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and data were analyzed using deductive data analysis. Peer review and multiple-analyst data triangulation were conducted to establish trustworthiness of the data.
Five emergent themes explained the lack of evidence-based practice (EBP) regarding recognition and treatment of EHS. Three themes (lack of knowledge, comfort level, lack of initiative) were common in both the collegiate and high school settings, and 2 separate themes (liability concerns, lack of resources) were present in the high school setting.
Our findings are consistent with those in the literature on EBP and EHS. Regardless of clinical setting, ATs have basic information on recognition and treatment of EHS, but 5 themes act as barriers to implementing proper management in the clinical setting. Workshops or hands-on training sessions need to be made available to improve students' comfort levels so ATs will implement EBP into everyday settings.
Journal of athletic training 01/2011; 46(5):533-42. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Athletic trainers (ATs) know to diagnose exertional heat stroke (EHS) via rectal thermometry (T(re)) and to treat EHS via cold-water immersion (CWI) but do not implement these recommendations in clinical practice.
To gain an understanding of educational techniques used to deliver content regarding EHS.
In-person focus groups at the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Annual Meeting in June 2009 and 2 follow-up telephone interviews to confirm emergent themes.
Thirteen AT educators (11 men, 2 women) from programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, with an average of 22 ± 9 years of clinical experience and 16 ± 10 years of experience as educators. Five NATA districts were represented.
Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review and data source triangulation also were conducted to establish trustworthiness.
Four themes emerged from the analysis: educational techniques, educational competencies, previous educational training, and privacy/public opinion. Educational techniques highlighted the lack of hands-on training for T(re) and CWI. Educational competencies referred to the omission of T(re) and CWI as psychomotor skills. Previous educational training addressed educators not having the skills or comfort with the skills necessary to properly educate students. Privacy/public opinion comprised external inputs from various groups (parents and coaches), legal considerations, and social bias.
Educators supplied students with the appropriate didactic knowledge about EHS, but their lack of training and misgivings about T(re) prevented them from allowing students to gain competence with this skill. Until the NATA competencies state the need to teach T(re) and CWI and until educators are provided with their own learning opportunities, evidence-based practice regarding EHS will be lacking.
Journal of athletic training 01/2011; 46(5):523-32. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry.
To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature.
In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants.
Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was -0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and -0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state.
Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot accurately reflect core body temperature, probably because it is influenced by factors such as ambient air temperature, probe placement, and ingestion of fluids. Any reliance on oral temperature in an emergency, such as exertional heat stroke, might grossly underestimate temperature and delay proper diagnosis and treatment.
Journal of athletic training 01/2011; 46(5):566-73. · 1.80 Impact Factor
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 07/2010; 24(7):1707-9. · 1.83 Impact Factor
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 04/2008; 40(5):S190. · 4.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Work-family conflict (WFC) negatively affects a professional's ability to function at work or home.
To examine perceptions of and contributing factors to WFC among secondary school athletic trainers.
Sequential explanatory mixed-methods study.
From a random sample of 1325 individuals selected from the National Athletic Trainers' Association Member Services database, 415 individuals (203 women, 212 men; age = 36.8 ± 9.3 years) provided usable online survey data. Fourteen individuals participated in follow-up interviews.
Online WFC questionnaire followed by in-depth phone interviews.
Descriptive statistics were obtained to examine perceived WFC. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated to examine the relationship between work hours, total athletic training staff, and number of children and WFC score. We performed analysis of variance to examine differences between the independent variables of sex and control over work schedule and the dependent variable of WFC score. The a priori α was set at P ≤ .05. Qualitative data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Multiple-analyst triangulation and member checks established trustworthiness of the qualitative data.
Mean WFC scores were 23.97 ± 7.78 for scale 1 (family defined as having a partner or spouse with or without children) and 23.17 ± 7.69 for scale 2 (family defined as individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life), indicating moderate perceived WFC. A significant relationship was found between the average hours of work per week and WFC scores: those with less scheduling control experienced more WFC. Two dimensions emerged from the qualitative methods that relate to how WFC is mitigated in the secondary school environment: (1) organizational-having colleagues and administration that understood the role demands and allowed for modifications in schedule and personal time and (2) personal-taking time for oneself and having a family that understands the work demands of an athletic trainer resulted in reduced perceived WFC.
A large number of work hours per week and lack of control over work schedules affected the perceived level of WFC.
Journal of athletic training 46(2):185-93. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) working at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level experience challenges balancing their professional and personal lives. However, an understanding of the strategies ATs use to promote a balance between their professional and personal lives is lacking.
To identify the strategies ATs employed in the Division I setting use to establish a balance between their professional and personal lives.
Qualitative investigation using inductive content analysis.
Athletic trainers employed at Division I schools from 5 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts.
A total of 28 (15 women, 13 men) ATs aged 35 ± 9 years volunteered for the study. Data Collection and Analysis: Asynchronous electronic interviews with follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review, member checking, and data-source triangulation were conducted to establish trustworthiness.
Three higher-order themes emerged from the analysis. The initial theme, antecedents of work-family conflict, focused on the demands of the profession, flexibility of work schedules, and staffing patterns as contributing to work-life conflict for this group of ATs. The other 2 emergent higher-order themes, professional factors and personal factors, describe the components of a balanced lifestyle. The second-order theme of constructing the professional factors included both organizational policies and individual strategies, whereas the second-order theme of personal factors was separation of work and life and a supportive personal network.
Long work hours, lack of control over work schedules, and unbalanced athlete-to-AT ratios can facilitate conflicts. However, as demonstrated by our results, several organizational and personal strategies can be helpful in creating a balanced lifestyle.
Journal of athletic training 46(2):194-205. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Authors of most field studies have not observed decrements in physiologic function and performance with increases in dehydration, although authors of well-controlled laboratory studies have consistently reported this relationship. Investigators in these field studies did not control exercise intensity, a known modulator of body core temperature.
To directly examine the effect of moderate water deficit on the physiologic responses to various exercise intensities in a warm outdoor setting.
Semirandomized, crossover design.
Field setting. Patients or Other
Seventeen distance runners (9 men, 8 women; age = 27 +/- 7 years, height = 171 +/- 9 cm, mass = 64.2 +/- 9.0 kg, body fat = 14.6% +/- 5.5%).
Participants completed four 12-km runs (consisting of three 4-km loops) in the heat (average wet bulb globe temperature = 26.5 degrees C): (1) a hydrated, race trial (HYR), (2) a dehydrated, race trial (DYR), (3) a hydrated, submaximal trial (HYS), and (4) a dehydrated, submaximal trial (DYS). Main Outcome Measure(s): For DYR and DYS trials, dehydration was measured by body mass loss. In the submaximal trials, participants ran at a moderate pace that was matched by having them speed up or slow down based on pace feedback provided by researchers. Intestinal temperature was recorded using ingestible thermistors, and participants wore heart rate monitors to measure heart rate.
Body mass loss in relation to a 3-day baseline was greater for the DYR (-4.30% +/- 1.25%) and DYS trials (-4.59% +/- 1.32%) than for the HYR (-2.05% +/- 1.09%) and HYS (-2.0% +/- 1.24%) trials postrun (P < .001). Participants ran faster for the HYR (53.15 +/- 6.05 minutes) than for the DYR (55.7 +/- 7.45 minutes; P < .01), but speed was similar for HYS (59.57 +/- 5.31 minutes) and DYS (59.44 +/- 5.44 minutes; P > .05). Intestinal temperature immediately postrun was greater for DYR than for HYR (P < .05), the only significant difference. Intestinal temperature was greater for DYS than for HYS postloop 2, postrun, and at 10 and 20 minutes postrun (all: P < .001). Intestinal temperature and heart rate were 0.22 degrees C and 6 beats/min higher, respectively, for every additional 1% body mass loss during the DYS trial compared with the HYS trial.
A small decrement in hydration status impaired physiologic function and performance while trail running in the heat.
Journal of athletic training 45(2):147-56. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Previous research has indicated that despite awareness of the current literature on the recommended prevention and care of exertional heat stroke (EHS), certified athletic trainers (ATs) acknowledge failure to follow those recommendations.
To investigate the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of ATs regarding the recognition and treatment of EHS.
Online survey. Patients or Other
We obtained a random sample of e-mail addresses for 1000 high school and collegiate ATs and contacted these individuals with invitations to participate. A total of 498 usable responses were received, for a 25% response rate.
The survey instrument evaluated ATs' knowledge and actual practice regarding EHS and included 29 closed-ended Likert scale questions (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree), 2 closed-ended questions rated on a Likert scale (1 = lowest value, 9 = greatest value), 8 open-ended questions, and 7 demographic questions. We focused on the open-ended and demographic questions.
Although most ATs (77.1%) have read the current National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on heat illness, only 18.6% used rectal thermometers to assess core body temperature to recognize EHS, and 49.7% used cold-water immersion to treat EHS. Athletic trainers perceived rectal thermometers as the most valid temperature assessment device when compared with other assessment devices (P <or= .05), but they used oral thermometers as the primary assessment tool (49.1%). They identified cold-water immersion as the best cooling method (P <or= .05), even though they used other means to cool a majority of the time (50.3%).
The ATs surveyed have sound knowledge of the correct means of EHS recognition and treatment. However, a significant portion of these ATs reported using temperature assessment devices that are invalid with athletes exercising in the heat. Furthermore, they reported using cooling treatment methods that have inferior cooling rates.
Journal of athletic training 45(2):170-80. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Work-family conflict (WFC) involves discord that arises when the demands of work interfere with the demands of family or home life. Long work hours, minimal control over work schedules, and time spent away from home are antecedents to WFC. To date, few authors have examined work-family conflict within the athletic training profession.
To investigate the occurrence of WFC in certified athletic trainers (ATs) and to identify roots and factors leading to quality-of-life issues for ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A setting.
Survey questionnaire and follow-up, in-depth, in-person interviews.
Division I-A universities sponsoring football.
A total of 587 ATs (324 men, 263 women) responded to the questionnaire. Twelve ATs (6 men, 6 women) participated in the qualitative portion: 2 head ATs, 4 assistant ATs, 4 graduate assistant ATs, and 2 AT program directors.
Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether workload and travel predicted levels of WFC. Analyses of variance were calculated to investigate differences among the factors of sex, marital status, and family status. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analyzed using computer software as well as member checks and peer debriefing. The triangulation of the data collection and multiple sources of qualitative analysis were utilized to limit potential researcher prejudices.
Regression analyses revealed that long work hours and travel directly contributed to WFC. In addition to long hours and travel, inflexible work schedules and staffing patterns were discussed by the interview participants as antecedents to WFC. Regardless of sex (P = .142), marital status (P = .687), family status (P = .055), or age of children (P = .633), WFC affected Division I-A ATs.
No matter their marital or family status, ATs employed at the Division I-A level experienced difficulties balancing their work and home lives. Sources of conflict primarily stemmed from the consuming nature of the profession, travel, inflexible work schedules, and lack of full-time staff members.
Journal of athletic training 43(5):505-12. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Previous researchers have shown that work-family conflict (WFC) affects the level of a person's job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and job burnout and intentions to leave the profession. However, WFC and its consequences have not yet been fully investigated among certified athletic trainers.
To investigate the relationship between WFC and various outcome variables among certified athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A settings.
A mixed-methods design using a 53-item survey questionnaire and follow-up in-depth interviews was used to examine the prevalence of WFC.
Division I-A universities sponsoring football.
A total of 587 athletic trainers (324 men, 263 women) responded to the questionnaire, and 12 (6 men, 6 women) participated in the qualitative portion of the mixed-methods study.
We calculated Pearson correlations to determine the relationship between WFC and job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and job burnout. Regression analyses were run to determine whether WFC was a predictor of job satisfaction, job burnout, or intention to leave the profession. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analyzed using the computer program N6 as well as member checks and peer debriefing.
Negative relationships were found between WFC and job satisfaction (r = -.52, P < .001). Positive were noted between WFC and job burnout (r = .63, P < .001) and intention to leave the profession (r = .46, P < .001). Regression analyses revealed that WFC directly contributed to job satisfaction (P < .001), job burnout (P < .001), and intention to leave the profession (P < .001).
Overall, our findings concur with those of previous researchers on WFC and its negative relationships to job satisfaction and life satisfaction and positive relationship to job burnout and intention to leave an organization. Sources of WFC, such as time, inflexible work schedules, and inadequate staffing, were also related to job burnout and job dissatisfaction in this population.
Journal of athletic training 43(5):513-22. · 1.80 Impact Factor