[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phaeofungin (1), a new cyclic depsipeptide isolated from Phaeosphaeria sp., was discovered by application of reverse genetics technology, using the Candida albicans fitness test (CaFT). Phaeofungin is comprised of seven amino acids and a β,γ-dihydroxy-γ-methylhexadecanoic acid arranged in a 25-membered cyclic depsipeptide. Five of the amino acids were assigned with d-configurations. The structure was elucidated by 2D-NMR and HRMS-MS analysis of the natural product and its hydrolyzed linear peptide. The absolute configuration of the amino acids was determined by Marfey's method by complete and partial hydrolysis of 1. The CaFT profile of the phaeofungin-containing extract overlapped with that of phomafungin (3), another structurally different cyclic lipodepsipeptide isolated from a Phoma sp. using the same approach. Comparative biological characterization further demonstrated that these two fungal lipodepsipeptides are functionally distinct. While phomafungin was potentiated by cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway), phaeofungin was synergized with aureobasidin A (2) (an inhibitor of the sphingolipid biosynthesis) and to some extent caspofungin (an inhibitor of glucan synthase). Furthermore, phaeofungin caused ATP release in wild-type C. albicans strains but phomafungin did not. It showed modest antifungal activity against C. albicans (MIC 16-32 μg/mL) and better activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC 8-16 μg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC 4 μg/mL). The linear peptide was inactive, suggesting that the macrocyclic depsipeptide ring is essential for target engagement and antifungal activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated a cyclic lipodepsipeptide, phomafungin, from a Phoma sp. The distinct antifungal activity of phomafungin in the crude extract was initially discovered by mechanistic profiling in the Candida albicans fitness test. The purified compound contains a 28 member ring consisting of eight amino acids and a beta-hydroxy-gamma-methyl-hexadecanoic acid, and displays a broad spectrum of antifungal activity against Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MIC of 2-8 microg/ml, and toxicity to mice at 25 mg/kg. The linear peptide derived from opening of the lactone ring was devoid of antifungal activity as well as toxicity. Phomafungin has been identified in a number of Phoma spp. collected from Africa and the Indian and Pacific Ocean islands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A glycosylated tetramic acid, virgineone (1), was isolated from saprotrophic Lachnum virgineum. The antifungal activity of the fermentation extract of L. virgineum was characterized in the Candida albicans fitness test as distinguishable from other natural products tested. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 1, a tyrosine-derived tetramic acid with a C-22 oxygenated chain and a beta-mannose. It displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus with a MIC of 4 and 16 microg/mL, respectively. Virgineone was also identified in a number of Lachnum strains collected from diverse geographies and habitats.