Stacy Shaw Welch

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (19)92.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In the current study, we compared measures of treatment outcome and engagement for Latino and non-Latino White patients receiving a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program delivered in primary care. Method: Participants were 18-65 years old and recruited from 17 clinics at 4 different sites to participate in a randomized controlled trial for anxiety disorders, which compared the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention (consisting of CBT, medication, or both) with usual care. Of those participants who were randomized to the intervention arm and selected CBT (either alone or in combination with medication), 85 were Latino and 251 were non-Latino White; the majority of the Latino participants received the CBT intervention in English (n = 77). Blinded assessments of clinical improvement and functioning were administered at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Measures of engagement, including attendance, homework adherence, understanding of CBT principles, and commitment to treatment, were assessed weekly during the CBT intervention. Results: Findings from propensity-weighted linear and logistic regression models revealed no statistically significant differences between Latinos and non-Latino Whites on symptom measures of clinical improvement and functioning at almost all time points. There were significant differences on 2 of 7 engagement outcomes, namely, number of sessions attended and patients' understanding of CBT principles. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CBT can be an effective treatment approach for Latinos who are primarily English speaking and likely more acculturated, although continued attention should be directed toward engaging Latinos in such interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 03/2014; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the effects of medical comorbidity on anxiety treatment outcomes.Methods Data were analyzed from 1004 primary care patients enrolled in a trial of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety. Linear-mixed models accounting for baseline characteristics were used to evaluate the effects of overall medical comorbidity (two or more chronic medical conditions [CMCs] versus fewer than two CMCs) and specific CMCs (migraine, asthma, and gastrointestinal disease) on anxiety treatment outcomes at 6, 12, and 18 months.ResultsAt baseline, patients with two or more CMCs (n = 582; 58.0%) reported more severe anxiety symptoms (10.5 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 10.1-10.9] versus 9.5 [95% CI = 9.0-10.0], p = .003) and anxiety-related disability (17.6 [95% CI = 17.0-18.2] versus 16.0 [95% CI = 15.3-16.7], p = .001). However, their clinical improvement was comparable to that of patients with one or zero CMCs (predicted change in anxiety symptoms = -3.9 versus -4.1 at 6 months, -4.6 versus -4.4 at 12 months, -4.9 versus -5.0 at 18 months; predicted change in anxiety-related disability = -6.4 versus -6.9 at 6 months, -6.9 versus -7.3 at 12 months, -7.3 versus -7.5 at 18 months). The only specific CMC with a detrimental effect was migraine, which was associated with less improvement in anxiety symptoms at 18 months (predicted change = -4.1 versus -5.3).Conclusions Effectiveness of the anxiety intervention was not significantly affected by the presence of multiple CMCs; however, patients with migraine displayed less improvement at long-term follow-up.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.com Identifier: NCT00347269.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 07/2013; · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined rates of trauma exposure, clinical characteristics associated with trauma exposure, and the effect of trauma exposure on treatment outcome in a large sample of primary care patients without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals without PTSD (N = 1263) treated as part of the CALM program (Roy-Byrne et al., 2010) were assessed for presence of trauma exposure. Those with and without trauma exposure were compared on baseline demographic and diagnostic information, symptom severity, and responder status six months after beginning treatment. Trauma-exposed individuals (N = 662, 53%) were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and had higher levels of somatic symptoms at baseline. Individuals with and without trauma exposure did not differ significantly on severity of anxiety, depression, or mental health functioning at baseline. Trauma exposure did not significantly impact treatment response. Findings suggest that adverse effects of trauma exposure in those without PTSD may include OCD and somatic anxiety symptoms. Treatment did not appear to be adversely impacted by trauma exposure. Thus, although trauma exposure is prevalent in primary care samples, results suggest that treatment of the presenting anxiety disorder is effective irrespective of trauma history.
    Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2013; 35(2):254-263. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of an anxiety disorder is associated with greater frequency of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Given the high personal and societal costs of suicidal behaviors, suicide prevention is a priority. Understanding factors present within individuals with anxiety disorders that increase suicide risk may inform prevention efforts. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and behaviors, as well as factors associated with suicide risk in patients with anxiety disorders in primary care. Data from a large scale randomized controlled study were analyzed to assess prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, as well as factors associated with suicide risk. Results revealed that suicidal ideation and behaviors were relatively common in this group. When examining mental and physical health factors jointly, presence of depression, mental health-related impairment, and social support each uniquely accounted for variance in suicide risk score. Methodological limitations include cross-sectional data collection and lack of information on comorbid personality disorders. Moreover, patients included were from a clinical trial with exclusion criteria that may limit generalizability. Results highlight the complex determinants of suicidal behavior and the need for more nuanced suicide assessment in this population, including evaluation of comorbidity and general functioning.
    Psychiatry research. 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study explores the relationships between therapist variables (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] competence, and CBT adherence) and clinical outcomes of computer-assisted CBT for anxiety disorders delivered by novice therapists in a primary care setting. METHODS: Participants were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of evidence-based treatment, including computer-assisted CBT, versus treatment as usual. Therapists (anxiety clinical specialists; ACSs) were nonexpert clinicians, many of whom had no prior experience in delivering psychotherapy (and in particular, very little experience with CBT). Trained raters reviewed randomly selected treatment sessions from 176 participants and rated therapists on measures of CBT competence and CBT adherence. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups on measures of anxiety, depression, and functioning, and an average Reliable Change Index was calculated as a composite measure of outcome. CBT competence and CBT adherence were entered as predictors of outcome, after controlling for baseline covariates. RESULTS: Higher CBT competence was associated with better clinical outcomes whereas CBT adherence was not. Also, CBT competence was inversely correlated with years of clinical experience and trended (not significantly, though) down as the study progressed. CBT adherence was inversely correlated with therapist tenure in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Therapist competence was related to improved clinical outcomes when CBT for anxiety disorders was delivered by novice clinicians with technology assistance. The results highlight the value of the initial training for novice therapists as well as booster training to limit declines in therapist adherence.
    Depression and Anxiety 12/2012; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Co-occurring depression is common in patients seeking treatment for anxiety; however, the literature on the effects of depression on anxiety treatment outcomes is inconclusive. The current study evaluated prescriptive and prognostic effects of depression on anxiety treatment outcomes in a large primary care sample. Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial that compared coordinated anxiety learning and management (CALM) to usual care. The study enrolled 1,004 patients between June 2006 and April 2008. Patients were referred by their primary care provider and met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder. They were treated for approximately 3 to 12 months with CALM (computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication management, or their combination) or usual care. Outcomes were evaluated by blinded assessment at 6, 12, and 18 months. Effects of baseline major depressive disorder (MDD) on anxiety symptoms, anxiety-related disability, and response/remission rates were evaluated using statistical models accounting for baseline anxiety and patient demographics. MDD did not moderate the effects of CALM (relative to usual care) on anxiety symptoms, anxiety-related disability, or response/remission rates. Greater improvements in anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related disability were observed in depressed patients, regardless of treatment assignment (P values < .005). However, cross-sectionally depressed patients displayed higher anxiety symptom and anxiety-related disability scores at baseline and all subsequent assessments (P values < .001). Depressed patients also displayed lower remission rates at each follow-up (P values < .001). CALM had comparable advantages over usual care for patients with and without MDD. Depressed patients displayed more severe anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related disability at baseline, but their clinical improvement was substantial and larger in magnitude than that observed in the nondepressed patients. Results support the use of empirically supported interventions for anxiety disorders in patients with co-occurring depression. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00347269.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12/2012; 73(12):1509-16. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders commonly present in primary care, where evidence-based mental health treatments often are unavailable or suboptimally delivered. To compare evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders with usual care (UC) in primary care for principal and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A randomized controlled trial comparing the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention with UC at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Seventeen US primary care clinics. Referred primary care sample, 1004 patients, with principal DSM-IV diagnoses of GAD (n = 549), PD (n = 262), SAD (n = 132), or PTSD (n = 61) (mean [SD] age, 43.7 [13.7] years; 70.9% were female). Eighty percent of the participants completed 18-month follow-up. CALM (cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy recommendations) and UC. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale, Panic Disorder Severity-Self-report Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version scores. CALM was superior to UC for principal GAD at 6-month (-1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.42 to -0.79), 12-month (-2.34; -3.22 to -1.45), and 18-month (-2.37; -3.24 to -1.50), PD at 6-month (-2.00; -3.55 to -0.44) and 12-month (-2.71; -4.29 to -1.14), and SAD at 6-month (-7.05; -12.11 to -2.00) outcomes. CALM was superior to UC for comorbid SAD at 6-month (-4.26; 95% CI, -7.96 to -0.56), 12-month (-8.12, -11.84 to -4.40), and 18- month (-6.23, -9.90 to -2.55) outcomes. Effect sizes favored CALM but were not statistically significant for other comorbid disorders. CALM (cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy medication recommendations) is more effective than is UC for principal anxiety disorders and, to a lesser extent, comorbid anxiety disorders that present in primary care.
    Archives of general psychiatry 04/2011; 68(4):378-88. · 12.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the training approach used with primary care staff to deliver an evidence-based computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for anxiety disorders within a collaborative care treatment delivery model. We describe the training and proficiency evaluation procedures utilized in the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study, a large multisite study of collaborative care for anxiety disorders in primary care. Training incorporated readings, didactic presentations, video demonstrations of CBT skills, role-plays, computer-assisted practice, CBT training cases and ongoing group supervision provided by study psychologists. Proficiency training case data from 15 clinicians are presented. The anxiety clinical specialists (ACSs) were highly proficient at delivering the CBT component of the CALM intervention. The ACSs also provided Likert-scale ratings and open-ended responses about their experiences with the training. Overall, the training was rated very positively and was described as very thorough, indicating a high level of acceptability to clinicians. Recommendations for future training are described. Primary care staff with none or minimal prior CBT experience can be trained to deliver a computer-assisted, evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. The implications for dissemination and transportability of evidenced-based interventions are discussed.
    General hospital psychiatry 01/2011; 33(4):336-42. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Improving the quality of mental health care requires moving clinical interventions from controlled research settings into real-world practice settings. Although such advances have been made for depression, little work has been performed for anxiety disorders. To determine whether a flexible treatment-delivery model for multiple primary care anxiety disorders (panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders) would be better than usual care (UC). A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) compared with UC in 17 primary care clinics in 4 US cities. Between June 2006 and April 2008, 1004 patients with anxiety disorders (with or without major depression), aged 18 to 75 years, English- or Spanish-speaking, were enrolled and subsequently received treatment for 3 to 12 months. Blinded follow-up assessments at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline were completed in October 2009. CALM allowed choice of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, or both; included real-time Web-based outcomes monitoring to optimize treatment decisions; and a computer-assisted program to optimize delivery of CBT by nonexpert care managers who also assisted primary care clinicians in promoting adherence and optimizing medications. Twelve-item Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-12) anxiety and somatic symptoms score. Secondary outcomes included proportion of responders (> or = 50% reduction from pretreatment BSI-12 score) and remitters (total BSI-12 score < 6). A significantly greater improvement for CALM vs UC in global anxiety symptoms was found (BSI-12 group mean differences of -2.49 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -3.59 to -1.40], -2.63 [95% CI, -3.73 to -1.54], and -1.63 [95% CI, -2.73 to -0.53] at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively). At 12 months, response and remission rates (CALM vs UC) were 63.66% (95% CI, 58.95%-68.37%) vs 44.68% (95% CI, 39.76%-49.59%), and 51.49% (95% CI, 46.60%-56.38%) vs 33.28% (95% CI, 28.62%-37.93%), with a number needed to treat of 5.27 (95% CI, 4.18-7.13) for response and 5.50 (95% CI, 4.32-7.55) for remission. For patients with anxiety disorders treated in primary care clinics, CALM compared with UC resulted in greater improvement in anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, functional disability, and quality of care during 18 months of follow-up. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00347269.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2010; 303(19):1921-8. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program designed to support the delivery of evidenced-based CBT for the four most commonly occurring anxiety disorders (panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) in primary-care settings. The purpose of the current report is to (1) present the structure and format of the computer-assisted CBT program, and (2) to present evidence for acceptance of the program by clinicians and the effectiveness of the program for patients. Thirteen clinicians using the computer-assisted CBT program with patients in our ongoing Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management study provided Likert-scale ratings and open-ended responses about the program. Rating scale data from 261 patients who completed at least one CBT session were also collected. Overall, the program was highly rated and modally described as very helpful. Results indicate that the patients fully participated (i.e., attendance and homework compliance), understood the program material, and acquired CBT skills. In addition, significant and substantial improvements occurred to the same degree in randomly audited subsets of each of the four primary anxiety disorders (N=74), in terms of self ratings of anxiety, depression, and expectations for improvement. Computer-assisted CBT programs provide a practice-based system for disseminating evidence-based mental health treatment in primary-care settings while maintaining treatment fidelity, even in the hands of novice clinicians.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2009; 26(3):235-42. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To address the difficulty of assessing and managing multiple anxiety disorders in the primary care setting, this article provides a simple, easy-to-learn, unified approach to the diagnosis, care management, and pharmacotherapy of the 4 most common anxiety disorders found in primary care: panic, generalized anxiety disorders, social anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This evidence-based approach was developed for an ongoing National Institute of Mental Health-funded study designed to improve the delivery of evidence-based medication and psychotherapy treatment to primary care patients with these anxiety disorders. We present a simple, validated method to screen for the 4 major disorders that emphasizes identifying other medical or psychiatric comorbidities that can complicate treatment; an approach for initial education of the patient and discussion about treatment, including provision of some simple cognitive behavioral therapy skills, based on motivational interviewing/brief intervention approaches previously used for substance use disorders; a validated method for monitoring treatment outcome; and an algorithmic approach for the selection of initial medication treatment, the selection of alternative or adjunctive treatments when the initial approach has not produced optimal results, and indications for mental health referral.
    The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 01/2009; 22(2):175-86. · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Shireen L. Rizvi, Stacy Shaw Welch, Sona Dimidjian
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    ABSTRACT: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe personality disorder characterized by prominent and pervasive dysregulation of emotion, behavior, and cognition. Current diagnostic criteria for BPD include difficulties with interpersonal relationships, affective instability, problems with anger, destructive impulsive behaviors, frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, problems with self-identity, chronic feelings of emptiness, transient dissociative symptoms and/or paranoid ideation, and suicidal behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In order for a diagnosis to be made, at least five of these nine criteria must be present beginning in early adulthood and lasting for several years.
    12/2008: pages 245-257;
  • 04/2008: pages 147 - 178; , ISBN: 9780470698976
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    ABSTRACT: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) are especially prevalent in borderline personality disorder. One proposed mechanism for the maintenance of NSSI and SAs is escape conditioning, whereby immediate reductions in aversive emotional states negatively reinforce the behaviors. Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of negative emotion associated with NSSI and SA imagery were examined in 42 individuals who met criteria for border personality disorder. Personally relevant imagery scripts that involved an NSSI and/or an SA incident were created, as were control scenes involving imagery of an accidental injury, an accidental death, or an emotionally neutral event. Results did not support the hypothesis that decreases in negative emotion would occur during NSSI imagery; however, decreases were found during imagery of the moments after NSSI, which suggests some support for escape conditioning. Support for the model was not found for SAs. Possible implications of patterns that demonstrate decreases in negative emotion during accidental death imagery are discussed.
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 03/2008; 76(1):45-51. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although affective instability is an essential criterion for borderline personality disorder (BPD), it has rarely been reported as an outcome criterion. To date, most of the studies assessing state affective instability in BPD using paper-pencil diaries did not find indications of this characteristic, whereas in others studies, the findings were conflicting. Furthermore, the pattern of instability that characterizes BPD has not yet been identified. We assessed the affective states of 50 female patients with BPD and 50 female healthy controls (HC) during 24 hours of their everyday life using electronic diaries. In contrast to previous paper-and-pencil diary studies, heightened affective instability for both emotional valence and distress was clearly exhibited in the BPD group but not in the HC group. Inconsistencies in previous papers can be explained by the methods used to calculate instability (see Appendix). In additional, we were able to identify a group-specific pattern of instability in the BPD group characterized by sudden large decreases from positive mood states. Furthermore, 48% of the declines from a very positive mood state in BPD were so large that they reached a negative mood state. This was the case in only 9% of the HC group, suggesting that BPD patients, on average, take less time to fluctuate from a very positive mood state to a negative mood state. Future ambulatory monitoring studies will be useful in clarifying which events lead to the reported, sudden decrease in positive mood in BPD patients.
    Psychological Medicine 08/2007; 37(7):961-70. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many experts now believe that pervasive problems in affect regulation constitute the central area of dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, data is sparse and inconclusive. We hypothesized that patients with BPD, in contrast to healthy gender and nationality-matched controls, show a higher frequency and intensity of self-reported emotions, altered physiological indices of emotions, more complex emotions and greater problems in identifying specific emotions. We took a 24-hour psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring approach to investigate affect regulation during everyday life in 50 patients with BPD and in 50 healthy controls. To provide a typical and unmanipulated sample, we included only patients who were currently in treatment and did not alter their medication schedule. BPD patients reported more negative emotions, fewer positive emotions, and a greater intensity of negative emotions. A subgroup of non-medicated BPD patients manifested higher values of additional heart rate. Additional heart rate is that part of a heart rate increase that does not directly result from metabolic activity, and is used as an indicator of emotional reactivity. Borderline participants were more likely to report the concurrent presence of more than one emotion, and those patients who just started treatment in particular had greater problems in identifying specific emotions. Our findings during naturalistic ambulatory assessment support emotional dysregulation in BPD as defined by the biosocial theory of [Linehan, M.M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guildford Press, New York.] and suggest the potential utility for evaluating treatment outcome.
    Psychiatry Research 05/2007; 150(3):265-75. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recall is an active reconstruction process likely to distort past experiences. This distortion, known as recall bias, seems to manifest itself differently in sick and healthy people. A recall bias has been documented in several disorders, but never investigated in borderline personality disorder (BPD). To determine recall bias in BPD, we assessed momentary and retrospective ratings of specific emotions in 50 patients with BPD and 50 healthy controls (HCs), using the methodology of 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Our data reveal a group-specific valence-dependent recall bias of retrospective self-report, indicated by a different overall recall pattern in HCs and BPD. BPD patients show an overall negative recall pattern, whereas HCs show a positive recall pattern. A traditional questionnaire approach does not distinguish between symptoms of the disorder and recall bias, although the pathological mechanisms underlying them as well as the appropriate treatment strategies may be different.
    Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 11/2006; 194(10):774-9. · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Stacy Shaw Welch, Marsha M Linehan
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    ABSTRACT: Both parasuicide and drug use continue to be difficult problems to treat in borderline personality disorder (BPD). One useful approach that has not yet been applied to BPD is to develop a taxonomy of triggering situations for these problems. Once these high-risk precipitants are identified, then the behaviors can be targeted with skills training. This model has been applied by Marlatt (1996) with very influential results. To examine high-risk situations for parasuicide and drug use in BPD, the current study examined women with BPD who came to treatment for two different primary problems: parasuicide (N = 75) and drug dependence (N = 47). Participants identified the situation associated with highest risk for relapse in either the parasuicide or drug category. A taxonomy is presented, which divides results into six main categories. Differences between high-risk situations for drugs and parasuicide were also explored. Parasuicide was significantly more likely to be linked to interpersonal problems, whereas drug use was more likely to be preceded by addiction cues (i.e., being near drugs or people who use drugs).
    Journal of Personality Disorders 01/2003; 16(6):561-9. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a treatment that synthesizes behavioral change with radical acceptance strategies, would be more effective for heroin-dependent women with borderline personality disorder (N = 23) than Comprehensive Validation Therapy with 12-Step (CVT + 12S), a manualized approach that provided the major acceptance-based strategies used in DBT in combination with participation in 12-Step programs. In addition to psychosocial treatment, subjects also received concurrent opiate agonist therapy with adequate doses of LAAM (thrice weekly; modal dose 90/90/130 mg). Treatment lasted for 12 months. Drug use outcomes were measured via thrice-weekly urinalyses and self-report. Three major findings emerged. First, results of urinalyses indicated that both treatment conditions were effective in reducing opiate use relative to baseline. At 16 months post-randomization (4 months post-treatment), all participants had a low proportion of opiate-positive urinalyses (27% in DBT; 33% in CVT + 12S). With regard to between-condition differences, participants assigned to DBT maintained reductions in mean opiate use through 12 months of active treatment while those assigned to CVT + 12S significantly increased opiate use during the last 4 months of treatment. Second, CVT + 12S retained all 12 participants for the entire year of treatment, compared to a 64% retention rate in DBT. Third, at both post-treatment and at the 16-month follow-up assessment, subjects in both treatment conditions showed significant overall reductions in level of psychopathology relative to baseline. A noteworthy secondary finding was that DBT participants were significantly more accurate in their self-report of opiate use than were those assigned to CVT + 12S.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 07/2002; 67(1):13-26. · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

458 Citations
92.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Psychology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2007
    • Evidence Based Treatment Centers of Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States